Who Invented the Keyboard and is the Dvorak Really Better than the QWERTY?

Who Invented the Keyboard and is the Dvorak Really Better than the QWERTY?


The
origin of the keyboard starts, unsurprisingly with the first typewriters. There were a variety of type-writer-like devices
around going back the 18th century, before one Christopher Latham Sholes, with some help
from a few other guys, came up with one that would become the first commercially successful
typewriter in the 1870s. Much like many typewriters since, Shole’s
device used letters and characters on the ends of rods which were called typebars. When a key was struck, the typebar would swing
up and hit the ink-coated tape which would transfer the image onto paper. The difference between this and more modern
incarnations, however, is this first device more or less mimicked the layout of a piano
keyboard and positioned the keys in alphabetical order in those two rows. This arrangement had a number of problems,
but most notably as people got faster at typing, it caused the typebars of the most commonly
used combination letters of the alphabet to be positioned close together, so when the
keys were hit one right after the other at any fast speed, the keys would jam. To solve this, the keys were rearranged to
put commonly used consecutive letters further away from each other to reduce jams. While you might be thinking, and it is widely
claimed, this was to fix the problem via making people type slower, all evidence point to
this simply being to position the arms of these letters better so they’d be less likely
to cross. It should be noted here that you’ll often
read now-a-days that this whole jamming story is a myth, and that Sholes was simply trying
to cater to telegraph operator’s usage in making the change. Everyone claiming this, including the Smithsonian
Magazine, which normally does a lot better research, cites one 2011 paper, On the Prehistory
of QWERTY, by Koichi Yasuoka and Motoko Yasuoka of Kyoto University as their source. However, what the people parroting this fail
to mention is that, if you go actually read the paper as we’re wont to do when researching,
this paper is just speculation with no real direct evidence to back their claims up. The authors of the paper further incorrectly
state that the idea that it was a typebar jamming as motivation didn’t pop up until
the 1980s. In truth, the idea that the change was spurred
by the typebar jamming came about in 1923 in the book The History of the Typewriter,
developed by authors from the Herkimer Historical Society, So what was their source for this claim? None other than Sholes notes and many correspondence
concerning the development of the typewriter. Now, normally we’d then go and actually
read through said notes and letters to find where Sholes actually says this to verify
for ourselves, but in this case, while the letters and notes still exist, they only seem
to exist in the state archives of Madison, WI and unfortunately we don’t exactly have
the budget to send someone out there to verify… So that’s where we had to stop on this particular
rabbit hole. If anyone from Madison Wisconsin wants to
go do a little digging further for us, we’d be much obliged. In the meantime, given the authors here aren’t
likely to have made this jamming story up out of thin air and were using Shoels’ notes
and letters as the base of their work, it seems probable that jamming really was the
motivation for the change. Whether you’re on board with us on that
one or not, one thing the aforementioned 2011 paper did get right was, once it was clear
a change was needed to stop the jamming, Sholes really did work with telegraphists on the
final layout to try to cater to their needs as best he could. But this shouldn’t be much of a surprise
given these were among his first customers. In fact, his literal first sale of the 1868
model was to Porter’s Telgraph College in Chicago. In any event, in 1868, in collaboration with
several other people, Sholes settled on an arrangement of the letters on the keyboard
for better spacing between popular keys used in combination. The results was that this initially made it
difficult for people to find the letters they needed to type efficiently, unlike when the
letters were in alphabetical order. However, thanks to less likelihood of jamming,
once one became proficient in the new layout, it was found to be a faster typing experience. Of course, at this point in history, people
were still predominantly using the hunt and peck method, rather than 10 finger typing,
so nobody was blazing fast or anything. As for this keyboard though, it was the beginning
of some semblance of the QWERTY we know and love today, which first appeared in 1872,
though it wasn’t quite exactly the one we have yet. For that, we have to fast-forward ever so
slightly. The first more widely available typewriter
machine found its way on the market in 1874 through Remington & Sons. The device was called the Remington No. 1,
or sometimes the “Sholes and Glidden” typewriter, with Remington and Sons acquiring
the rights to it and its near QWERTY keyboard. This, however, did not sell well. Four years later, however, after slight modifications
to the arrangement of the keyboard were made, we finally have the qwerty layout in the famed
Remington & Sons Remington No. 2 model, which also notably included the ability to type
both capital and lowercase letters by using the shift key. And if you’ve ever wondered why the Shift
key is called that- well, wonder no more- The shift key received its name because it
caused the carriage to shift position in order to type either a lowercase or capital letter
which were on the same typebar. Although the shift key we use on our keyboards
today does not cause the machine to shift mechanically, the name stuck. In any event, as the typewriter rose in popularity,
people stopped complaining about the weird arrangement of keys and started memorizing
the keyboard and learning how to type efficiently. What particularly helped the sales of the
Remington No. 2. Model was that Remington offered classes for
a very small fee to learn to type proficiently with the keyboard. They also offered certification in the keyboard,
which was a good thing to have for a typist looking for a job, and further good for companies
wanting to ensure they could get someone proficient right away just by their resume. Within a little over a decade there were over
100,000 typewriters using this qwerty layout. As it came to dominate, although other alternate
keyboards tried to break into the market, most people decided to stay with the QWERTY
layout largely due to the widespread popularity of the typewriters that used it. The nail in the coffin to other layouts occurred
in 1893 when Remington and four other major typewriter makers all merged and set the QWERTY
as the industry standard. There is one other layout, however, that over
the decades has had a small amount of traction and induced many a flame-war on the interwebs,
often touted as superior to the qwerty for many reason- the Dvorak layout. This has its origins in the 1930s when Professor
August Dvorak of Washington State University set out to develop a more user-friendly keyboard. He ultimately changed the layout such that
all of the vowels and the five most commonly used consonants were arranged on the home
row (AOEUIDHTNS). The general idea of this keyboard was to try
to minimize the need to move your fingers anything but pressing on a key with the most
commonly used words. For example, with the Dvorak keyboard, a person
could type approximately 400 of the English language’s most common words just by using
the keys of the home row, compared to in the ballpark of 100 of those most common words
on the QWERTY keyboard. It is also optimized such that you’ll more
frequently alternate hands pressing the keys to further increase speed. So does this actually speed up typing? Not in any real world noticeable way. It turns out in the countless studies done
on this, the general consensus seems to be that the average increase in words per minute
is typically only about 2% to up to 10% or so, give or take depending on what study you
want to go with. So, for example, if you used to type at 60
words per minute, you might expect something like at most 66 words per minute or so once
you take the necessary time to become proficient at the new arrangement. That said, some people see much higher improvement
rates, even sometimes on the order of 30%-100% boost in words per minute rates. However, if you look closer, people that see
these types of huge improvements tend to be people that learned to type on qwerty keyboards
without any formal training and generally had suboptimal speeds there because of it. Thus, if they trained properly on the qwerty
keyboard, they’d also have seen a large increase in words per minute. As you might imagine from this, actually testing
which is superior, if either, has been a bit difficult, given there’s potential for a
lot of noise in the data with so many people at so many varied levels of proficiency on
the QWERTY before being formally trained on the Dvorak. Thus, in an effort to get around this problem,
there have been studies that have taken the humans out of the experiment. Exhibit A: a January of 2006 paper titled
The Great Keyboard Debate: QWERTY vs Dvorak, by Kathryn Hempstalk of the University of
Waikato. In this study, she measured things like the
average travel time it took for fingers to move up and down rows and press and the like
for giving strokes on the keyboard. She then took 21 lengthy books, including
Moby Dick, and simply added up the time it would take to type those texts out using the
Dvorak and the qwerty layouts, given the known average movement times for proficient typers-
an ingeniously simple and accurate way to take the human element out. So what were the results? Timing-wise, even with such a large sample
size, neither keyboard was really faster than the other in the general case. She summed up the study by stating, “the
Dvorak layout is the most efficient because it requires the least amount of effort to
type some given text, even though it [takes] approximately the same amount of time as the
QWERTY layout.” At this point you aficionados might be already
heading to the comments to tell us that Dvorak’s initial studies, particularly one conducted
with the U.S. Navy in 1944, looking at his keyboard’s superiority showed far more glowing
results in increased in speeds- a whopping 74% increase and reduction of typos by 68%
once the keyboardists were trained up. The problem was that follow up studies, such
as one by the U.S. General Services Administration in 1953, among others around this time, couldn’t
replicate these results, though some speculate these studies were rigged against the DVORAK. Whether that’s true or not, a surprising
number of studies since, as noted, haven’t been able to replicate the original results
either except in cases where someone hadn’t bothered to be properly trained in the QWERTY
layout in the first place. Whatever you want to believe on whether the
1950s studies were rigged or not, these studies ultimately killed the Dvorak keyboard’s
momentum as the majority of people and companies didn’t want to commit the time or resources
it would take to train on a new keyboard if the improvement was only marginal at best. And since then, not much has changed on that
front. That said, proponents of the Dvorak keyboard
who accept that the Dvorak isn’t actually noticeably faster, do point out there are
other benefits to the Dvorak beyond speed, primarily in less wrist and finger fatigue
and supposedly fewer typos (though the data on this latter one is mixed despite widespread
claims). While less finger and wrist fatigue does indeed
appear to be a genuine benefit, proponents of just sticking with the QWERTY tend to be
quick to point out that it takes a rather long time to master a new keyboard layout,
with people who’ve made the switch to Dvorak generally claiming it took them about 1-6
months to reach the proficiency they have on the qwerty. And further, it takes an awful lot of continual
typing before most find themselves fatigued on the qwerty layout anyway. Thus, for the majority of people, it’s probably
not worth the effort of re-training. Further, QWERTY disciples point out that losing
proficiency in the qwerty layout that’s pretty much everywhere, is potentially an
issue of making the switch. Though to that, many people we read who did
become proficient on the Dvorak noted that for them, their brains had no issue switching
back and forth between layouts so long as they continued to regularly use both. The human brain is pretty amazing, it turns
out. Perhaps the bigger issue for these individuals
was that a lot of short cut key strokes in various software are geared towards the qwerty
layout, and can often be quite awkward on a Dvorak keyboard, though there are ways around
this if one wants in some cases with some autohotkey scripts that convert for you. A similar issue is often pointed out by computer
programmers in that the symbol placement on the Dvorak is extremely sub-optimal when programing
in C and its many off-shoots. Proponents of the Dvorak, however, correctly
point out that all these problems are only problems because almost everyone uses the
qwerty. If everyone switched, you’d get a very tiny
boost in speed, slightly less finger and wrist fatigue, and these other problems would go
away. But of course, as it’s only a slight improvement,
and not a game changing one, the QWERTY keyboard, much like the useless letters Q, X, and C,
persevere through today and seemingly will continue to do so for the foreseeable future,
though there are some new efforts being made for better keyboard layouts when typing with
just two thumbs as people do a huge percentage of the time now. But even then, the qwerty still dominates
to date. As Dr. Dvorak himself aptly summed up- “Changing
the keyboard format is like proposing to reverse the Ten Commandments and the Golden Rule,
discard every moral principle, and ridicule motherhood.” Speaking of dominating, if you’d like to
dominate with your amazing knowledge on many things, you’ll want to get a subscription
to Curiosity Stream!

100 thoughts to “Who Invented the Keyboard and is the Dvorak Really Better than the QWERTY?”

  1. I have a mechanical type writer and it's easy to jam it up. I made the switch to Dvorak in college and never looked back. I type faster than qwerty and my hands don't hurt when doing so. Even use Dvorak on my phone lol

  2. I switched to Programmer's Dvorak about 2 years ago because I had finger pains after long coding sessions. What I can say from my experience:

    – I'm considerably faster than I was on QWERTY but it took me so long to get up to speed that it's hard to say if it's because of the layout or natural evolution through practice

    – I can't remember ever getting awkward strokes (when you accidentally hit two or more keys with one finger) after the switch

    – I can still touch type in QWERTY at average speeds

    – Dvorak feels a lot more comfortable to type on and my pains are completely gone

  3. My solution for using the Dvorak keyboard: hold no reverence for “we’ve always done it that way”. So what if it takes a few months to master something? Did you lose your ability to learn after finishing school? Why are you so enamored with the QWERTY layout when it’s so ridiculously easy to change layouts nowadays?

  4. Future show topic suggestion: Why were the Soviets afraid even long after the Cuban missile crisis that the US was going to attack them? I just got done watching the HBO miniseries "Chernobyl" and they briefly mentioned it. I think it was fear mongering to distract the average Soviet citizen about the problems the gov't was having like being broke in the 1980's.

  5. Man, so little love for the Colemak keyboard. It has similar strain and fatigue reductions as Dvorak but is MUCH MUCH easier to learn coming from Qwerty. Colemak was developed with computer assistance and optimized key placement so the most used keys are on the home row, but they are also optimized for more 'rolling' motions. The biggest difference from Dvorak though is they used Qwerty as a base and only two keys switched hands and there's several keys that didn't move, especially the Z, X, C, and V keys so that copy and paste hot keys stay the same.

    I learned it in just a couple weeks and I have been using it for about 5 years now. When I was working for a job where I couldn't change the layout, my brain was able to switch to Qwerty during the day and back to Colemak at night. On the weekends I still typed in Qwerty during the day. =P

    Tl;dr Colemak's better than Qwerty, and easier to learn than Dvorak.

  6. All is amazing but could you pls tone down this excessive mannerism in your voice? It's becoming unbearable. Just speak like people do please. You are great educator but definitely not a first class actor. Theres nothing wrong with not being a voice actor. Also nothing wrong with being self-powered, as long as you are not becoming a caricature of yourself. Cheers!

  7. Even if true, These supposed speed improvements would’ve made sense back when “typist” was a job. When you use a keyboard in real life to type your thoughts, you are limited way before reaching those height word per minutes.

  8. Anyone else typing with Dvorak here?

    Seriously, I actually switched over from QWERTY to Dvorak after becoming a transcriptionist. For me, it has definitely increased my typing speed and reduced hand and wrist fatigue. I use it on my phone too. lol

  9. And then there are cyrillic users, japanese and chinese users. Sad QWERTY noises.
    CZ/SK keyboards are QWERTZ 😀 I mean fuggen hell!

  10. Years ago, I learned Dvorak in order to type slower as I was experiencing pain in my fingers and wrists when typing. Although I was soon typing at roughly the same speed as QWERTY, I found that the pain did not return from typing. In addition, I discovered that Dvorak is actually good for typing syllabic languages like Filipino languages because it alternates between vowels and consonants quite well. I've stuck with Dvorak through the years, but switch to QWERTY when needed.

  11. i had a friend that worked for AT&T as an operator. he said they used a different keyboard than the traditional QWERTY, must have been a Dvorak.

  12. Got a question for you Simon…it's currently -45C ( that's –49F for you metrically challenged folks), and very foggy. Why does that fog not freeze? Why are we not "encased" ice?

  13. And in the same topic, why do so many people use the computer mouse 'right-handedly'?….that right hand has to move back and forth from the mouse to the ten-key pad on the keyboard…All you data-entry people, you're doing it wrong! Left and right hand dominance have nothing to do with it, it's just laziness me thinks….

  14. I use modified QWERTZ.

    Czech has few more letters, so numbers in the top line hide +ěščřžýáíé='
    Right from L we have ů and right from P we have ú.
    Some less used letters have to be written by sequence of two keys (sign = on US kbd followed by letter), like ďťňó.

    For different symbols I remember usually the right Alt + letter combination.

    For Russian there are many combinations, but I prefer the querty/qwertz like variants (явертз) as I have only latin alphabet an all of my kbds I use.

  15. In the typing age we live in I'm astounded that no alternative method for typing seems to have caught on, like stenography or velotype. At least on phones where it's all software… There is of course a problem with the lack of fingers, the other types of typing usually utilizes several fingers at once, and that would be hard on a phone

  16. "reverse the Ten Commandments and the Golden Rule"….ironic since the Golden Rule was meant to, basically, replace the Ten Commandments (or, rather, the 613 Commandments)

  17. The "Who Invented the Keyboard and is the Dvorak Really Better than the QWERTY?" drinking game:
    One shot of tequila each time he pronnounces the word Dvorak as DDDVVVorak.

  18. I'm a fast typist and when at the computer i didn't notice a real difference, but ever since i started using dvorak on the cell phone instead of qwerty, i swear to god i can now type at double the speed of before using just my two thumbs, it's amazing

  19. Clicked the video to learn who invented the keyboard (the actual input device) but the title is missleading and the video is only about typewriter/keyboard layouts. I am leaving dissapointed.

  20. Interesting question might be how much difference the rise of electric typewriters and keyboards has affected the results.We don't have to strike keys anymore and it doesn't take any appreciable pressure, so fatigue is almost a non-issue. Carpal tunnel is probably more to the point.

    Years back I was pretty fast, close to 120 corrected WPM on the old VT100 terminals. Now I'm much slower with arthritis making an entry and creating some weird issues, particularly that some keystrokes that used to be very fast are slow while others are still at the same speed, so I reverse letters a lot because my brain still thinks my left ring finger can actually type! I played with a Dvorak layout for a while back in the 80s when I was a programmer and it was pretty much impossible for me to make the switch. Most of the problem was that I wasn't able to use it exclusively, but had a conventional keyboard on my computer at home and on all the other terminals at work, that I also had to use from time to time. Just never really felt like there was enough potential to keep working at it and gave up.

  21. You might have added (as a bonus fact) that QWERTY is not a global standard. Many countries use a QWERTZ or AZERTY layout, and the Latvians use a ÜGJRMV layout, according to Microsoft's globalization page.

  22. I would say part of it also comes that Dvorak is strictly English optimised and the whole world is not strictly English(of course, there are other language-based optimisations…)
    Qwerty is more broad in its distribution across Latin script-based languages. With qwerty, there are a myriad of minor variants (I use qwertz) and it's much easier to account for those minor variations than an entire layout completely dedicated to an X language that you may not use daily at all. Especially if you keep switching between multiple languages throughout the day, those optimisations on arm strain go out of the window quickly. Relearning drastic keyboard changes also doesn't sound much productive every time you travel for jobs (is say every country had it's own strictly X language optimised cript.)
    Likely also a reason why manufacturers prefer to stick with qwerty, there's not a lot to change to appeal to different languages.

  23. OH SNAP! Go get em, Simon! Don't let anyone get away with that crap, not even the Smithsonian!

    Why are my lady parts all tingly, now?🤔

  24. Isn't this the guy that tried to tell us that chemtrails were completely normal condensation vapors, which are completely harmless, he's a sellout, & why don't these climate mongers ever mention Chemtrails?? I stand corrected the video on chemtrails has been taken down??

  25. Like your one study showed. I found it was very easy to switch between both keyboard layouts as long as I used both regularly. I still think Dvorak layout is more superior due to better key placement. Still amazing all the studies staying how little of an improvement is a shock. In the end it sounds like key placement makes very little difference in their research. Now people will argue just to put the keys in alphabetical order.

  26. I really do think the wrist fatigue/ carpal tunnel benefits deserved more attention than a mere mention since it seems to be the primary benefit to me. Splitting the effort made my carpal tunnel go away when typing. As opposed to feeling like someone stuck an icepick in my left wrist when typing qwerty. I was always somewhat dubious about the speed benefit, and since I never typed 200 words per minute, it was never an issue. So that is why It is weird to have the bulk of the video on the lesser benefit.
    Also, it only took a week to learn to touch type Dvorak. I would posit that the time it takes to switch over depends a lot on your current typing speed.
    Benefits of using Dvorak (keeping in mind that switching is just a matter of changing the keymap on a computer)

    1. People who watch you type your passwords won't know what your password really is because you are apparently typing on a qwerty keyboard.
    2. Less wrist strain and fatigue.
    3. Relieves carpal tunnel symptoms.
    4. Switching back is relatively easy when on someone else's computer since the keys are labeled.
    5. It strongly discourages roommates or coworkers from messing with my computer.

    Problems with Dvorak are something I put up with because of the carpal tunnel benefit.
    1. Sometimes I don't realize that my keyboard switched to qwerty and none of my passwords work. This is normally an inconvenience, but if one is using some kind of lockout system where data is erased on the third mistyped password, it can be a major problem.
    2. Games almost always require some keyboard remapping. This is more tedious in MMOs which utilize almost the entire keyboard for hotkeys.
    3. Sometimes I can't change the keyboard map on another computer since system settings are restricted.

  27. Does the fact that the most common letters are on the home keys make it faster to learn?
    What bugs me is that on the qwerty all the keys are still offset to make room for the mechanical levers. Why can't we have a QWERTY with all the keys lined up vertically?

  28. Let's all remember that "your finger travel less", "you get less finger fatique", "your weaker fingers don't get used as much", etc usually only apply for English (and very similiar) languages.

    F.e. As a Polish I see no point in having every vowel on the same row. As two different vowels practically never appear next to each other. I would care more about keys being positioned in such a way that it is easy to hit Right Alt+Letter to get special characters like: ą, ę, ć, ł, etc.

    I know that English is the most used language. But I think that universal keyboard layout should fit as many languages as it can and not appeal to a specific one.

  29. The real reason he did did it because he was writing the pick up line, "If I could rearrange the alphabet, I'd put U and I together."

  30. Been using Dvorak since 1993 thanks to the same propaganda you noted being in the mavis beacon teaches typing software box.

  31. Personally, I would learn Dvorak to mess with my classmates, but I'm basically used to QWERTY because of muscle memory, so I'm kinda afraid that learning Dvorak then going back to QWERTY and suddenly I can't do stuff in QWERTY as fast.

  32. I little over a year ago I switched to Colemak. And I'm honestly glad I did, because it feels so much cleaner than QWERTY. That said, I still use swipe qwerty on my phone, as it's by far the fastest input method for mobile. But I'd say that for me, a programmer that solely uses vim, even though I have to rebind every button in every game, it's worth it. Even though I have to use qwerty at work, it's still worth it.

    The thing I find infuriating though, is the stupid useless good for nothing telephone style number pad. I easily make way more mistakes because of that than the qwerty problem I made for myself. Like why can't we just use the normal layout? Because I can key at an extremely high rate, I'm punished by not being able to properly enter a phone number. BS

  33. It seems like if we all used Dvorak from the beginning we would all be slightly faster and less fatigued, but because QWERTY is so common it’s just not worth it now to change on a universal scale.

  34. I think it would be worth mentioning that the typing work is balanced for left hand and right hand better in Dvorak, and from that I would hypothesize that there could be less chance of carpal tunnel. Most people that have carpal tunnel, tend to injure the left hand more often since qwerty places something like 60% work on your left hand.

  35. I can't speak for everyone, but for me the difference in finger and wrist fatigue was not marginal. It was the difference between my hands and wrists hurting at the end of the day every single day and never hurting from typing.

  36. It's commonly pronounced DuhVorJack. But hey, it's Simon's pronunciation so that's OK because the Americans probably don't know either. Also some times pronounced VorShack with a nearly silent D.

  37. I've been using the Dvorak layout for quite a while now. I can say that my speed has increased a bit because I am not making as much mistakes as I did when using QWERTY. Plus, the added benefit is the comfort.

  38. Perhaps the most useful class I had in high school was typing. I was a programmer for over 3O years and I thanked that class every day.

  39. I always recommend people who are interested in Dvorak to try COLEMAK. Better in nearly every way. For me personally, I despise QWERTY, Dvorak is only fractionally better mostly due to overworking weak pinkies and the odd hand alternating induced by putting all the vowels on one side. Colemak is a major leap in the right direction but I still find myself frustrated with certain aspects of it. Mainly, the insistence to be as similar to Qwerty as possible with the idea that that similarity would make it easier to learn and switch back and forth. I eventually gave up my search for a better layout and just designed my own. Now no one is able to use my computer but me <evil laugh>.

  40. I think it would just be hard to actually change over that many people over when you get typing classes in school on QWERTY, but if individual wanted to learn for themselves, go for it

  41. Personally I think it takes a lot longer than 6 months to master a keyboard. 20 years ago I could type around 40 words per minute max, I'd been typing for around 2 years at that time. Now I can type 80 words per minute. Even if one is slightly better than the other, I don't think it's worth the effort to start over.

    Though, I suppose it's not necessarily the keyboard that takes that long to master, but typing in general, so maybe the switch wouldn't take so long.

  42. Another MAJOR problem with switching when the Dvorak layout was being "pushed" was that unlike today,(where swapping out a keyboard is cheap and changes are just a software issue), If everyone had switched, all existing typewriters would have to be dumped. Typewriters were EXPENSIVE as all get-out. At the time of Dvorak's introduction, the cheapest Remington PORTABLE (read: "home" version…) would cost about $600 in today's money, A full size office model could be SEVERAL times as much, and that's for manual typewriters, plenty MORE for electrics! (Yes, there WERE electrics then!)

  43. As I started training typing on qwerty, my fingers felt horrible and in the nights, they were simply hurting. I've then learnt about Dvorak and made the switch. I did not have any issues since then.

    As I'm coding a lot, I've learnt programming Dvorak layout, that makes all brackets easily accessible, unlike qwerty.

  44. And here I am typing on AZERTY, the true superior keyboard experience! Marvel at how easy it is for me to do these kind of things: é è à ô â ç. All in one or at most two keystrokes! All bow before the Belgian AZERTY masterrace!!

    But seriously, it's all about what you're used to and what's the standard in your area. Sure there'll be options that are theoretically a few percentage points quicker in certain niche situations, but standards are standard for a reason: ease of use for the average Joe and availability.

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