What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

Matter, as we know it; Atoms, stars and galaxies, planets and
trees, rocks and us. This matter accounts for less than
5% of the known universe. About 25% is dark matter;
and 70% is dark energy. Both of which are invisible. This is kind of strange because it
suggests that everything we experience is really only a tiny fraction of reality. But it gets worse. We really have no clue what dark matter
and energy are, or how they work. We are pretty sure they exist though. So, what do we know? Dark matter is the stuff that makes
it possible for galaxies to exist. When we calculated why the universe
is structured the way it is, it quickly became clear that there’s just
not enough normal matter. The gravity of the visible matter
is not strong enough to form galaxies and complex structures. The stars would more likely be scattered
all over the place and not form galaxies. So, we know there is something else inside
and around them. Something that doesn’t
emit or reflect light. Something dark… but besides being able to calculate
the existence of dark matter, we can see it… kind of. Places with a high concentration of dark
matter bend light passing near by. So we know there’s something there that
interacts with gravity. Right now, we have more ideas about
what dark energy is not, than what it is! We know dark matter is not just clouds of
normal matter without stars, because it would emit particles
we could detect. Dark matter is not anti-matter, because anti-matter produces unique gamma
rays when it reacts with normal matter. Dark matter is also not
made up of black holes, very compact objects that violently affect
their surroundings, while dark matter seems to be
scattered all over the place. Basically, we only know 3 things for sure; 1. Something is out there. 2. It interacts with gravity. 3. There is a lot of it. Dark matter is probably made up of a
complicated exotic particle that doesn’t interact with
light and matter in a way we expect, but right now, we just don’t know. Dark energy is even more
strange and mysterious. We can’t detect it, we can’t measure it
and we can’t taste it. But we do see its effects very clearly. In 1929, Edward Hubble examined how
the wavelength of light emitted by distant galaxies, shifts
towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum
as it travels through the space. He found that fainter, more distant galaxies
showed a large degree of red shift; closer galaxies, not so much. Hubble determined that this was because
the universe itself is expanding. The red shift occurs,
because the wavelengths of light are stretched as the universe expands. More recent discoveries have shown that,
the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Before that, it was thougth that the pull
of gravity would cause the expansion to either slow down or even retract and
collapse in on itself at some point. Space doesn’t change its properties
as it expands; there’s just more of it. New space is constantly
created everywhere, galaxies are tight bound clusters of stuff
held together by gravity so we don’t experience this expansion
in our daily lives. But we see it everywhere around us. Wherever there is empty space in the
universe, more is forming every second. So, dark energy seems to be some
kind of energy intrinsic to empty space. Energy that is stronger than
anything else we know and it keeps getting stronger
as time passes by. Empty space has more energy than
everything else in the universe combined. We have multiple ideas about
what dark energy might be. One idea is, the dark energy is not
a thing, but just a property of space. Empty space is not nothing, it has its own
energy. It can generate more space and
is quite active. So, as the universe expands,
it could be that just more and more space appears to fill the gaps and this leads
to a faster expanding universe. This idea is close to an idea that
Einstein had back in 1917, of the concept of a cosmological constant, a force that counteracted
the force of gravity. The only problem is, that when we tried
to calculate the amount of this energy the result was so wrong and weird,
that it only added to the confusion. Another idea is, that empty space is
actually full of temporary, virtual particles that
spontaneously and continually form from nothing and then dissapear into
nothing again. The energy form those particles
could be dark energy. Or maybe dark energy is an unknown kind of
dynamic energy fluid or field which permeates the entire universe,
but somehow has the opposite effect on the universe than normal
energy and matter. But if it exists, we don’t know
how and where or how we could detect it. So there are still a lot of questions to
answer. Our theories about dark matter and
dark energy are still just that; theories. On one hand, this is kind of frustrating,
on the other hand this is frontier science making it very exciting. It shows us that no matter how much
we feel we’re on top of things, we are still very much
apes with smartphones, on a tiny fragile island in space looking into
the sky wondering how our universe works There is so much left to learn,
and that is awesome. This video is supported by the
Australian Academy of Science, which promotes and supports
excellence in science. Learn more about this topic
and others like it at nova.org.au. It was a blast of work with them
so go check out their site. Our videos are also made possible
by your support on patreon.com, if you want to support us and become part
of the Kurzgesagt Bird Army, check out our patreon page. Subtitles by the Amara.org community

100 thoughts to “What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?”

  1. To simplify things, it's very tempting to call it 'invisible matter' rather than 'dark matter'. Maybe it's time to open the cupboard of archaic physics and take a closer look at the concept of 'aether'. Perhaps it can be helpful in some way

  2. Dark matter and energy is the substance of a different dimension, the space that was before the big bang. This is obvious and very simple to understand.

  3. I have one question. How do they know ordinary matter is only 5%? Does it mean they know how much is 100% or total available matter?

  4. We might never know what dark matter is. Unless some genius comes along (assuming that is possible for a human to comprehend dark matter through maths) then we aren't going to know anytime soon. We might have reached the limits of what physics can achieve. The true nature of our reality including the most fundamental question of where we came from will probably have to be left to our speculation.

  5. My class actually just covered this topic. It's very very interesting and actually not at all a confusing concept.

  6. "If the sea were ink for [writing] the words of my Lord, the sea would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even if We brought more sea as refill."

  7. we know even at the smallest particle mass, that can be reached using atom smashers! mass is in fact some kind of measurable energy, defined as substance used to do work? E=MC2. so everything that is in a 3d space time vacuum is energy , what kind of energy? light? bipolar matter anti-matter? magnet?
    wave energy? the smallest anything of small. at some point matter must be filtered into this other dimension! some kind of jump! i believe matter is in some kind of string shape that vibrates in some kind of system that keeps it in union with other parts of matter? so, with in a black hole mass is sucked into it.

    converted by new gravity into dark energy, black holes convert mass energy into black energy. if this logic is sound? and i can't prove it now but if it is true? is it not reasonable that in the fourth dimension there exists engine that make or convert black or dark energy into visible mass light energy? apply the math. if this black mass that occupies 97% of known mass in the known universe can project into a lower state or level or dimension then the question is how does it work? how does a higher dimension link to this one? if black holes suck out mass and converts it to dark energy why would there not be a system that takes dark matter and sends it into the third dimension? an if true can we use it to build new things?

  8. universe is not expanding …it is in cyclic phase…if expanding then…every matter in the universe should expand . example in earth the distance between atom in matter also increases here in earth…but it is not happening…

  9. Who wants a renewed video on dark matter and dark energy hits the like button, I am making some researches but can't find anything new may be Kurzgesagt would know

  10. what if it's something that exists in the fourth dimension and is so close to us on the fourth axis that we can see an effect

  11. what if dark matter is just a blackhole. I dont find any difference b/w them by the way it said in the animation

  12. Let me put it like this, other than laws of science by Commonsense and Logic , if there is no force to stop it would move until it stopped by a force isnt it ? So the galaxies once formed by particle physics things condensation after Bigbang tend to move further away since the gravity is weak force I should expect my Hair in india to pull a person's hair in america by gravity . The galaxies moving apart coz it has no force to stop it and gravity bw those galaxies are not enough to pull together. No dark energy no Darkmatter.

  13. Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the means by which the Sentient Universe maintains quarantine around barbarian cultures, unfit to join the family of life that exists across space.

    Distance and time insurmountable, to keep at bay those who think they have a divine right, instead of a universal responsibility.

  14. maybe wavelength increases over very long distances and the galaxies arent running away from each other. anyone got proof against that statement? :>

  15. Translation: The galaxy doesn't work with the theory of gravity, so we had to make up something to make our equations work. It's all a load of crap. Trying to tell us that there is something that's 20x more dense than the 200 billion stars in our galaxy combined, but we can't see it? Please. The explanation is the earth is flat, and the density they're looking for is the glass dome above us.

  16. So, we can detect S happening, but don't know how or why it's happening. I vote magic. Because that would be cool.

  17. Holds galaxies together but yet the universe is expanding.. Not a contradiction here? Or a paradox at least.. Expansion is into nothing.. So it would suggest the dark matter energy is a function of being near to real matter.. OR. MAYBE THERE IS NO DARK ANYTHING AND THEY JUST HAVE SOME ISSUES WITH THE CURRENT MODEL..

  18. Sorry if this sounds stupid, but couldnt dark energy be the energy resulting from space constantly producing matter and anti matter which spontaneously combust?

  19. The universe is unfathomably awesome… therefore we're apes? I understand how thinking and learning about the vastness of the universe can lead to us feeling profoundly humbled, but how does that take away from our own sophistication and worthiness? If anything doesn't it add to it rather than take away? I personally feel humbled and privileged to be in existence in such an awesome universe, and annoyed that such a well put together video ends up having a subtle lame agenda at the end.

  20. What if DE and DM are the "god particles". The primordial particles that make up the multiverse. DM is the collective force, the force that gives gravity its properties. DE is the individual force, the force that gives energy its properties.

    Imagine an endless void of DM and DE, DM wants to bind the void together, DE wants to fight this binding, and when enough DM presses in on DE, DE violently fights back, and when this battle reaches its climax, boom, a universal singularity is born, and the residual components of this battle become quarks. So imagine a endless void with an endless amount of bubbles exploding within, DE and DM guiding the universal principles into play, then cooling and fusion take over while still being controlled by the primordial forces of DE and DM…

  21. So when I ask the question "what is space?" No one has a real answer just theory and speculation!
    And if the humans of this tiny rock could stop waging wars and mass funding military forces, redirect those funds toward absolute science I might have my answer.

  22. its easy to find dark matter and dark energy when u heat lets say a closed box and suddenly pour cold water on it. The difference between amount of energy supplied to the amount of energy required to constrict the box in the experiment when tallied with energy required by physical pressure to get to that state will give u the dark energy and dark matter ratio . I think U can also see dark matter only I have still doubts about my understanding.

  23. Everything is so hypothetical and confusing I hope some day somebody or some team finds out for real what it is… Btw I really love kurzgesagt i hope you always keep making these awsome videos

  24. Gelap gelita angkasa lepas ,kuasa gelap wujud seluruh kegelapan angkasa sehingga bumi sempadan ozon mungkin graviti pusingan bumi menolak atau jarakan melepas toksid dari penghuni melepas berbagai gas sehingga dari gas dari tangki saptitek tandas jadi tak perlu hairan 😂 seterusnya alam gelap graviti mungkin berada ditengah diantara jarak bulan dijumpai sama ia betul atau tidak itu tak penting kegulungan graviti gelap atau kuasa gelap akan berkabung dia tara kuasanya menghasilkan berbentuk bulat bagaikan ada sesuatu menarik atau melepaskan sesuatu kuasa angaran saya ialah kuasa megatron atom tak berbahaya atau membinasa hanya membina sesuatu mungkin bintang baru bagai kan mempunyai banyak sektor berperingkat dari diatas berbahagian hingga kebawah menjadi lorong berbulat dan berjalur kebawah sahaja atau kita gelar lubang cacing makin jauh makin panas terpaksa cacing bersarang ditengah paras tanah itu cacing cerita kita balik ke lubang hitam mungkin ini kah peranan lubang hitam menghasilkan kuasa tanpa minyak atau kuasa menjalan mesin disini apakah alam angkasa mempunyai kuasa semula jadi terlalu tinggi gred sehingga susah ramalkan di mana tepat atau kajian patut dijalan diangkasa lepas atau kita mempunyai teknologi hanya sekadar ala sahaja anggapan ,🤔 .. .

  25. Wait a minute, Space isn't created by the minutes… it's already there. Just because the distance between objects get larger doesn't mean new space is created. More space is TAKEN, but it was already there.

  26. Angry Whovian time: at 1:58 they show the TARDIS being sucked into a black hole, while in the past the TARDIS has been seen escaping black holes. I know it isn't the point, but it's wrong and I'm enraged. I'm unsubscribing to the internet.

  27. According to me what I have seen that dark energy is quantum energy, it's like photons keep moving until the end of their energy but dark energy never ends it's just transform into another type of energy.

  28. Something is inflating the space and the Universe structure looks like foam that is inflated by some sort of "gas". The universe's structure resembles foam, or, "sponge", if you look at it, where gravity plays the role of superficial tension {in the "foam"} and where Somebody/thing is inflating the space with something, which is an "anti-gravity", and, which we believe to be the dark energy? We get it for free, though, where that compressor is?

  29. Dark energy and dark matter is not a thing, it is just a few constants put into our equations in order for them to make sense.
    What they really are is an expression of our theories being wrong, but we don't have anything better right now, so we pretend it still work while inventing things that don't exist to put into our equations.

  30. Dark energy and dark matter is not a thing, it is just a few constants put into our equations in order for them to make sense.
    What they really are is an expression of our theories being wrong, but we don't have anything better right now, so we pretend it still work while inventing things that don't exist to put into our equations.

  31. People are always talking about the existential crises Kurzgesagt gave them.
    Imagine the amount of existential crises Kurzgesagt has while editing and studying.

  32. neutron star: hah jokes on you universe iam stronger than anybody here.

    blackhole: the heck you talking about?

    dark matter: oh please children calm down let me take the show.

    Dark Energy: sup-

    Neutron star left the server
    Blackhole left the server
    Dark matter left the server

  33. I had a dream about an alien telling me don't go into dark matter and then a bunch of alien words. I was scared

  34. This isn't bad, 5% of the Universe is matter, and it's great, we experience a great part of reality… it's big, too.

  35. Dark matter is unmanifested conciousness(Shiva)or god
    Everything else is matter
    Which also contains CONCIOUSNESS
    But this manifest itself in diff. Forms as a result there are different atoms.

  36. Every day, there are more and more papers coming out in the scientific journals that use an alternate theory to dark matter. Apparently, it was the best way we had to support the model of the universe but now, the Plasma Universe theory is starting to win out.

  37. Could be something from a higher dimension that we simply can't understand. That would also be a good way to explain the "particles appearing and disappearing" throughout empty space, which is the cause of Hawking Radiation.

  38. Black matter is where our unwanted conciseness ( aka criminals) go when we die by our own conciseness, therefore, no hell exists, only unwanted black matter.
    It can’t be measured because it is OUR unwanted conciseness. Tyvm SL

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