What if electricity could travel forever

without being diminished? What if a computer could run exponentially

faster with perfect accuracy? What technology could

those abilities build? We may be able to find out thanks

to the work of the three scientists who won the Nobel Prize

in Physics in 2016. David Thouless, Duncan Haldane, and Michael Kosterlitz won the award

for discovering that even microscopic matter

at the smallest scale can exhibit macroscopic properties

and phases that are topological. But what does that mean? First of all, topology is a branch

of mathematics that focuses on fundamental properties

of objects. Topological properties don’t change when

an object is gradually stretched or bent. The object has to be torn or attached

in new places. A donut and a coffee cup look the same

to a topologist because they both have one hole. You could reshape a donut

into a coffee cup and it would still have just one. That topological property is stable. On the other hand,

a pretzel has three holes. There are no smooth incremental changes

that will turn a donut into a pretzel. You’d have to tear two new holes. For a long time, it wasn’t clear

whether topology was useful for describing the behaviors

of subatomic particles. That’s because particles,

like electrons and photons, are subject to the strange laws

of quantum physics, which involve a great deal of uncertainty that we don’t see

at the scale of coffee cups. But the Nobel Laureates discovered

that topological properties do exist at the quantum level. And that discovery may revolutionize

materials science, electronic engineering, and computer science. That’s because these properties

lend surprising stability and remarkable characteristics

to some exotic phases of matter in the delicate quantum world. One example is called

a topological insulator. Imagine a film of electrons. If a strong enough magnetic field

passes through them, each electron will start traveling

in a circle, which is called

a closed orbit. Because the electrons are stuck

in these loops, they’re not conducting electricity. But at the edge of the material, the orbits become open, connected,

and they all point in the same direction. So electrons can jump

from one orbit to the next and travel all the way around the edge. This means that the material

conducts electricity around the edge but not in the middle. Here’s where topology comes in. This conductivity isn’t affected

by small changes in the material, like impurities or imperfections. That’s just like how the hole

in the coffee cup isn’t changed by stretching it out. The edge of such a topological insulator

has perfect electron transport: no electrons travel backward, no energy is lost as heat, and the number of conducting pathways

can even be controlled. The electronics of the future

could be built to use this perfectly efficient

electron highway. The topological properties

of subatomic particles could also transform quantum computing. Quantum computers

take advantage of the fact that subatomic particles can be

in different states at the same time to store information in something

called qubits. These qubits can solve problems

exponentially faster than classical digital computers. The problem is that this data

is so delicate that interaction with the environment

can destroy it. But in some exotic topological phases, the subatomic particles

can become protected. In other words, the qubits formed by them can’t be changed by small

or local disturbances. These topological qubits

would be more stable, leading to more accurate computation

and a better quantum computer. Topology was originally studied as

a branch of purely abstract mathematics. Thanks to the pioneering work

of Thouless, Haldane, and Kosterlitz, we now know it can be used to understand

the riddles of nature and to revolutionize

the future of technologies.

How they discover that ? I want more specific Video

where is that playlist about math and physics ?

All I understood was holes are holes.

A p and an r are the same to a topologist

ö, who is that cat i see?

i always wish these vids would go more in depth. You've introduced topology, great, but didn't really explain how it can apply to physics.

it doesn't matter if you don't understand, it's science, it's supposed to be cool

Doesn't the coffee cup has two holes??? One handle one, other upper one??😊😊☺☺

Sooo, donuts can't be pretzels?

Say what…?

What in the world is topological quantum matter? – Fan Zhang

Hey "Tell Me This," I may be type #873a: One who understands the present spectrum of Quantum Physics on an academic level, feeds three cats who never wander near boxes, remains apolitical, served in the military, but doesn't own a handgun, shops at thrift-stores, drinks well-water (can't fluoridate me haha), and finds it humorous, albeit pitiful that modern man has become so impressed with himself.

I have been using topological ointments for years. LOL

A coffee cup has 2 holes

1:49 Another Schrodinger's cat reference 😀

You can also use topology to explain the brain's connections:

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23531450-200-the-brains-7d-sandcastles-could-be-the-key-to-consciousness/

Very sophomoric explanation…even for the general public.

Is a pretzel the same as a hole in a hole in a hole?

so does this mean that it just broke the laws of thermodynamics?

I'm curious to know the software to make the video? This tool makes knowledge easy to understand.

Arabic translation plzzzzzzz

Thouless has detached earlobes. Otherwise, pretty solid video.

I'm understand why the results in 3:56 is 42 😉

Vai se fuder cade as legendas em português?

Happiness cloud fly psychology arrange name presence stranger.

The cat. Funny.

I still don’t understand lol I have a BA in English.

Haha 42

Don't forget Professor Zahid Hasan…

My IQ level – don't coffee cup has 2 holes? How do you drink the coffee then?

Expansion vs abuse interview voice otherwise male typical yard equally

I didn't get anything you said bruh

Surely it's not 100 % efficient, because of the energy required for the magnetic field?

Woah! now I understand

Isn't that really dangerous though

Best Youtube Channel About Science Ever!

But a cup has two holes 🙁

What about that big whole at the top of the mug?

I want to translate this video' s subtitle to Chinese. what should I do?

A cup has 2 holes not 1

so is a topological insulator a perpetual motion machine

Good

awesome explanation !!!

The vid is GRT..but the example which u gave of the mug nd the donut is wrong as the mug has two holes not one..

Coffee mugs have holes on the top not the side!!!!

This is my favourite YouTube channel 💙

Waiting for a video for quantum computers, introduction and its implication in the world of computing (both negative and positive implications.)

Im scared. But im amazed. Uncertainties of QM is now being uncovered…and perfected.

42

1:16 I thought cups have 2 holes? One at the top and one at the handle

What is a topological invariant? Which is the topological invariant in the case of a topological insulator?

Torus!

Drinks coffeeEats doughnutsDoes that mean topology graduates use play-doh to model?

Is that schrodinger's cat ? xD

if you are watching this, you are quite smart and on your way to becoming a genius soon.

Topological field theory has a hidden danger. Reductionism has never worked for theoretical physics. This is why the LHC's validation of the Standard Model's predictions didn't lead to deeper theoretical devices. Topology gives enormous freedom to define infinitely many independent variables and to constrain the degrees of freedom an arbitrary mathematical object's motion may take. There is a real risk that this model will generate confirmation bias when all attempts at a reductionist interpretation appear to work. Anomalies would be difficult to detect, much less to discard.

The example confused me a little bit… You have the doughnut, the coffee mug, and the pretzel. You said that you'd have to cut holes into the doughnut to make it a pretzel but that's not true. You can stretch and fold the doughnut into a pretzel shape. The main take away of that example was that the objects will conduct the same as long as you don't break the object or do anything to break the object's exterior circuit correct? I'm just confusing myself on the example and folding doesn't change the shape…. I actually just answered my own question…. Alright

Plzz ted ed tell me how a coffe cup has only one hole. There are 2.

This was probably one of the best/most manage explanations I've heard about on this topic. Thank you for sharing!

Blahhhhh

Good job animator with the answer being 42. LOL!

3:57 LOL

Please upload video about Quantum numbers

At 3:57 there’s a reference to The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy with 42.

I guess im the cat who appears in the middle of serious discussion wondering what's going on?

Hi, pls be patient with me, for i know nothing about quantum physics… but after watching, i have a question:

Why do the orbits in the outer layer become open / connected? don't these electrons revolve around a single atom, as the ones in the middle? how do you split an atom and maintain half of it's orbitals? thx 🙂

Ya.. this video doesn't say that elections move super slowly when travelling over distances. I believe electrons can be out walked an a typical DC current. not sure tho.. However, Obviously in our new tiny devices,, distance isn't an issue as it was just 20+ years ago. Thanks for reading.. like and subscribe.

'Am I alive?" Lol 🙂

now I'm proud to put a donut in ring finger

Although I'm pursuing btech

Idk wtf is going on🙄

Hollywood got a new fancy word

So can we create a quantum computer which can simulate every person simultaneously

1:48

nice schrodinger's cat XD

A cat having an existential crisis nice.

So i can turn this 👌 into this 🍺

Topo-logical comes from Τοπος and λογος, which is Ancient Greek.

Τοπος means either

1. Place/Space

or

2. An summary of points in flat level or space with a common property/characteristic

So 100% efficiency is possible? The theory is brilliant but we can only believe it practically proved. How can you make the atoms move in a enclosed structure like that?! I wanna know!!!!

humans are humans. you are all the same.

Check out 03:56; the answer to life, the universe and everything!

Douglas Adams' Deep Thought is a quantum computer.

I thought it's a changing magnetic field that cause the electrons to move like this

I LOVE THE SLY HITCHHIKER'S REFERENCES

The cat is forever a symbol of Quantum physics.

I gotta call Schrodinger because he's car is roaming around..🐈

How come a cup of coffee has the same holes with donut when the cup of coffee has two holes? (If you look from the top)

If it ran so smoothly, cant we just do this.

2019? Any body

Create more cartoons about physics, neuroscience, astrophysics and artificial neural networks. Please TED-Ed.

This is the worst video, sorry. I couldnt understand almost nothing

Like the cat reference

Topologists be like:

Straw=Plane

Key=Pretzel

We can classify male and female with the help of Topology

To a topologist, the letter T is like helicopter blades, a fidget spinner, and if you think hard enough, a person.

Think of it this way. It can allow for stronger processing in computers because in topology, no matter how much you change the shape of the electrical waves around it, it stays working. Topology focuses less on holes than the gaps around a place. If there were gaps in the ground at a race, of course it’d be harder to end up at the finish line than if everything in the race is smooth. Hence greater efficiency.

I am here for the Donuts and Coffee. Anyone?

Idk why but this reminds me of Draco Dormiens Nunquam Titilandus which is Latin and the Hogwarts motto which is Never Tickle A Sleeping Dragon Im pretty sure I know a few words in Latin but its all thanks to google translate

Me:"Nothing is harder than topology and quantum mechanics"

Them:

THIS VIDEOI literally lost it in the first 30 seconds

love topology, love quantum phys! And this "intersection" is pretty exciting.

David thouless passed away this april

TOPOLOGYINTHEREALWORLD!Basically this video says nothing