Use of Atomic Quibts in Quantum Computing

Use of Atomic Quibts in Quantum Computing


we have been talking about the different aspects
of building of quantum computers and in this regard let us go back and look at some of
the cases that we have looked at and so let us see what we need our qubits as we have
discussed before and which are typically two level quantum systems which can undergo super
positions which means they have to be isolated from outside world otherwise their super position
will not stay so that is the fragility of this problem they had to be confined characterizable
and scalable so the main constrain on the qubit lies on the fact that it has to be at
two level quantum system which can undergo super position but since it can undergo super
positions it becomes fragile which means there it is to be isolated from the outside world
so such qubits which are confinable that can be characterized and can be scalable are good
qubits for building quantum computers in terms of preparation we would like to have the computer
being ready in the standard start state we should be able to have a readout of the process
and finally we should have logic gates that are controllable with the interactions with
outside world and we would like to have qubit gates that can be of either single or multi
qubit type now thats in not a necessary requirement because there can be qubits which could only
work on say the single or a few qubit operations and
yet in terms of gates and yet get to useful computation generally for a general purpose
computer however may be this requirement is also useful in terms of logic gates most of
the time in implementations we have started discussing from atomic states in terms of
qubits and so a natural question often may arise is to why atomic qubits mostly because
of the fact that they have the unparalleled persistence of quantum super position that
is one of the best situation for atomic qubits mainly in terms of iron traps and isolated
atoms they can act like atomic clocks which have absolute accuracy and precision so the
technology exists in terms of using atoms in this form so also possible to have control
over the quantum states both internal and external in the case of atomic qubits for
example bose einstein condensate fermi degeneracy which is controllable mott insulator transition
quantum squeezing quantum state engineering and so on and so forth so there are several
control points in case of atomic qubits the atomic ions have been demonstrated for building
blocks of scalable quantum computer and that is one of the cases where ion traps have remained
very useful in terms of quantum computing and we have also shown that very recently
even commercial ventures are starting on the ion trap principle ion traps are basically trapped ions which
are placed in controllable conditions by the trap itself if we generated through electromagnetic
interactions which is possible through the magnetic and electric fields that are provided
to such trapped ions either through the laser or through the field providing gradients that
are possible through the electrodes and as far as detection is concerned light can be
used to have some interaction with the trapped ions which can be then looked at through a
photo detector in terms of trapped ion quantum computing a collection or a string of tat
a collection or a string of trapped atomic ions are used as qubits which could be the
internal atomic levels of the system or it could be the relative condition of these ions
so for example in this particular case we have all the trapped ions having the same
nature so ground and excited they have the same condition now the preservance of this
condition is the quantum memory of the system the time it takes for this system to change
from its original state would be its decoherence which is in relation of each of them being
in ground state if some of them flip then that is the decoherence time and therefore
its important that the decoherence time be larger than the application of the gate as
the gate itself is doing trying to do some operation of this kind for many cases it is known that these are
long times in terms of decoherence t two for instance is ten minutes in in a situation
like this where the relative states are all the same so this is a very good system in
that sense and as we know has been used in clocks with accuracy and stability of a very
large number so once we apply the field which is the one which would be used for gate processing
others the system can be made to go from the ground to the excise state from the zero it
straight to the first excise state and the other option is to use them in terms of data
bus or which is the common mode motion condition which can be achieved through transitory activities
once again here the decoherence has to be greater than the gate operation mode and so
here for instance this particular set would be your ground state where as the other one
where the ions are being squeezed to come closer would be your excised state and this
have a time scale of ten to the power minus two to ten to the minus three seconds which
is not as great as the other case of changing the nature of the ground or the excise state
is the relative closeness of different ions which are being played with in this case so
this is a transitory operation in that sense both of them are useful for doing quantum
computing with ion traps so here is a basic operation principle which
have been earlier shown to you in one of the earlier lectures a quantum logic gate between
two different ions for instance has been shown and i take this opportunity to revisit that
part because thats a very interesting point in this particular case the qubits are being
prepared using single qubit gates so in this case the qubits would be prepared
by using single qubit gates by the use of a laser where the laser would be used to map
the qubit i state to motion with laser so for example this is the case where this state
was put to motion and so their relative conditions change between the first case to the case
where the laser selective to the ith state was applied
so once more first a laser is provided to prepare the qubit in the single qubit gate
condition next the qubit ith state is set to motion with the laser the j state remains
the same and now that has happened we now have this condition and then the two qubit
gate between the motion and i and j is being possible to be generated so we can put the
information from motion back into i and i by using the laser so that was the set of
operation where the basic principle case is often used in terms of ion traps where the
utility of having several ions being together can be said to use both in terms of their
energy states as well as their relative position and their addressability with the lasers with
relative to each other thats the advantage which is used now the difficulty in terms
of scaling up as the number of ions keep on increasing is that the iron strings get heavier
and the gates gets lower and the more motional modes essentially also lead to greater noise
and therefore it becomes harder and harder to do it one of the advantages is to apply
optical multiplexing between different states by using optical fibers and detectors and
lasers being operated simultaneously in this form and this is one of the ideas which have
been utilized where the cavity modes of different states have been excited so that they can
be also additionally used and laser raman stimulated emission and all these other characteristics
by use of laser have also been applied for making this go further details of this have been discussed in the
earlier weeks lectures where we dealt with ion trap quantum computing the major part
of the effort in that direction in terms of using single atoms per say for doing quantum
computing are related in this fashion we know that there are different parts where the principle
works and can be scaled some of them the do a better job in terms of scaling versus the
others so in terms of ion traps and atoms in optical lattices as well as cavity q e
d it is essentially the individual atoms and photons which are in action in terms of doing
that quantum computing so its either the cavity modes of the q e d which is as represented
in this form or the atoms in optical lattices has been shown here or the ion traps as we
just showed with their relative positioning or their energies which have being conditioned
in terms of individual atoms and photons in this particular idea of using this individual
atoms and photons for quantum computing so this works there are difficulties but they
can be made to work and the advantage here is the sensitivity as well as the coherences
is very less and so it can help in terms of executing the operations the other principles
that we have used throughout this course have been in terms of using superconducting materials
or superconductors per say and there we have discussed about cooper pair boxes which are
basically charged qubits as well as r f squids which change their property based on the applied radio frequency fields
and they are and they act as flux qubits so they have also shown promise and have been
used in fact certain types of applications of the superconducting qubits have been shown
to be of much use in the d wave computer also they use
some parts of this technology to build their commercial quantum computer
semiconductors or quantum dots are the other kinds of qubit structures that we have also
discussed in this course in terms of using for quantum computers and they have their
advantages although the lifetimes and others associated issues we have discussed can be
difficulty as well as addressability sometimes can become very difficult the other condensed
matter aspects or applications which have come to quantum computing are the electrons
floating on liquid helium or single phosphorous atoms in silicon this is one of the areas
where defect atoms have been utilized for quantum computing and their properties have been manipulated
and shown to be useful in terms of quantum computing so there are various aspects related
to single atoms and photons which have been put to use when we use these kinds of approaches
towards quantum computing one of the biggest issues in almost all of them has been the
idea of noise and the concept of decoherence where the relative phase of the system is
going to interact with environment so that the system can no longer keep its information
intact so in other words the question which we always ask is what happens to a qubit when
it interacts with an environment in terms of a quantum computer as long as its isolated
it has the quantum property and his information however if this information is lost due to
decoherence as the environment essentially removes its quantum nature and sort of brings
it back to an interaction condition where it loses the particular characteristic so this is a very important issue and this
has had always been addressed in various different cases in different ways now there are two
types of decoherence which is typically talked about one is the t one process which is longitudinal
relaxation energy is lost to environment through the potential interaction the other one is
the t two process or the transverse relaxation where the system becomes entangled with the
environment and instead of having the entire information in the particular quantum state
of interest it is distributed over the entire system and so in essence the information is
no longer easily perceivable so in order to look at this its important to see how decoherence
effects its one thing to just say that its a loss of information but its also important
to know what are the exact consequences so here are the effects of environment on quantum
memory the one which is more known as the longitudinal or the t one effect has a straightforward
exponential decay in its behavior whereas the t two or the transverse
relaxation procedure has an oscillatory kind of a behavior and overall the fidelity of
the stored information essentially decays with time however in the transverse relaxation
case the decay is oscillatory in nature and there is a coupling and thats why it is considered
to be an entangled with the system and the decay is in oscillatory fashion so the effect of environment on quantum algorithms
can be seen in terms of this kind of a modeling where in case of an ideal oracle to measures
the results as the number of qubits increases the decoherence increases and this is an example
case for the grovers algorithm where the success rates for the number of qubits keeps up going
down in this particular format as we show here as the oracle gets more and more noisy
it becomes difficult to look at it in some sense the errors accumulate lowering the success
rate of the algorithm and that is one of the reasons why environment has a large effect
on quantum computing so a lot of effort goes in suppressing decoherence one of the approaches
is to remove or reduce the effect of the environment or the coupling potential between the quantum
and the environment and this can be done by reducing the coupling or potential that is
can build a better computer the system is to be isolated for the environment and that
is whereas one of the greatest strengths which the d wave quantum computing has shown in
isolating their system so well from the environment and making sure that it works much better
way as compared to the others you can also increase the applied field so
that the splitting our cross the levels increase and so the decoherence is also lesser and
in terms of magnetic field applied spins and other cases this is how it can made to work
other option is also often use is to use decoherence of free subspace and finally we can use pulse
sequences to remove decoherence and this is one of the cases that we will discuss later
on in in a case where we have shown how pulse sequences can be used to remove decoherence
from such systems there are lots of applications of making sure that the decoherence is not
going to affect the quantum computing and as far as quantum computing is concerned the
factorization as we have talked about is a major factor and that can be utilized from
building quantum encryption as the current approach of r s a encryption may fail because
factoring at exponential speeds can compromise the way computing or the encryption works
for the classical sense quantum simulation is also another very important area where
quantum computing once the decoherence properties and other things are removed can be very useful
there can be spin off technology as we have discussed earlier in terms of spintronics
quantum cryptography and others which have been put through for developments they can
also be spin off theory for example of the theory of development of density matrices
and n represent ability of theories and so a lot of applications in terms of the quantum
computer becomes applicable once the decoherence aspects of the problem can be looked at so
with this background we will be looking at some more aspects of computing quantum computing
which wherein we address the decoherence principles so that they can become more practicable as
we have done in this course but some of them will be highlighted in the upcoming lecture
thank you

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