Social Orders and Creation Stories: Crash Course World Mythology #5

Social Orders and Creation Stories: Crash Course World Mythology #5



哈囉!我是麥克‧如格內塔
歡迎收看《神話速成班》 今天,與其著重在地球、和其他星球是怎麼被創造的 我們要著重在地球上的事物。 準確的說,是人。
更準確的說,是男人跟女人的「人」。 也會包含一些動物。 不,不包括你,圖特。 你不一樣,你是人身動物首的神。 總之,我們要看看怎麼從神話角度
看人類的起源和人與人之間的關係。 至少,看看神話是怎麼去解釋這些關係的。 這是神話版的兩性問題。 《速成班》主題曲 《神話速成班》 神話通常不包括今天所謂的「性別流體」概念 不過,有時候也會有。
就是在說你,古預言家特伊西亞斯 如同我們在中國和祆教創世神話中可見,
神話通常包含兩極或二元。 當中最重要的一種,就是男女的分別。 而這種二元對偶,通常都是男尊女卑的關係,
…至少在人間是這樣 在天上則比較複雜一點。 我們先從多數觀眾們最熟悉的故事:
《聖經》裡,神創造男人和女人的故事 仔細閱讀《創世紀》的話,你會發現
裡面其實有兩三個創世的故事。 而根據聖經學者解釋,
這反映了不同的書寫傳統。 我們會著重在《創世紀》第二章
裡面的第二段創世故事 在故事裡面,神已經創造好天地
並創造了人來管理大地 就像我們上次談到的:
神很討厭除草 與第一次創世不同,人是在創造初始時就被造出來, 這表示他在神的造化當中扮演很重要的角色。 然而,一個人似乎做不完伊甸園的工作。 《創世紀》第二章第廿一節
「神使他沉睡,他就睡了。 於是取下他的一條肋骨,又把肉合起來。 神就用那人身上所取的肋骨,造成一個女人,
領她到那人跟前。 男人說: 『這是我骨中的骨,肉中的肉。
可以稱他為女人, 因為她是從男人身上取出來的。 因此,人要離開父母,與妻子連合,二人成為一體。』 這裡我們見到早期用文字遊戲解釋
男人優勝於女人的「證明」 在創世紀後半部份,
就像神允許男人為女人取名一樣 因為人是萬物之靈,他也擁有
替所有的動物取名字的權利 在原本的希伯來文中也是同樣的文字遊戲
男人是 Ish,女人是 Isha。 看到了嗎? 她是從男人身上取出來的,
所以連他的名字也是從男人延伸出來的 好笑吧? 看希臘的笑神傑拉斯笑的多開心阿? 好吧,有點冷… 這一段同時解釋了婚姻
雖然只是一男一女的婚姻 也解釋了人婚後離開父母、
另組家庭的社會現象 我不知道這是在解釋已存的家庭結構,
還是要推動這樣的家庭結構 不過非常有可能是「馬後砲」式的解釋 畢竟神話的主要功能之一就是為人類日常生活中
所遇到的種種提供一個合理的解釋 聖經接下來詳細解釋了男女之間的「自然」關係 卻不是很「好玩」或符合女權觀點 他們吃了智慧樹的果實後,
神便生氣地懲罰了他們 祂對女人說:「我必多多加增你懷胎的苦楚 你生產兒女必多受苦楚,
你必戀慕你丈夫 你丈夫必管轄你。」 又對亞當說:「你既聽從妻子的話 吃了我所吩咐你不可吃的那樹上的果子 地必為你的緣故受咒詛;
你必終身勞苦,才能從地裡得吃的。 地必給你長出荊棘和蒺藜來, 你也要吃田間的菜蔬 你必汗流滿面才得餬口,
直到你歸了土 因為你是從土而出的。
你本是塵土,仍要歸於塵土。」 這一段發生了很多事。 其中一種詮釋認為這是
樹立「重男輕女」的理由 因為這是一個女人違背神的旨意所受的懲罰 第一個懲罰直接影響了女人的生活
使她有分娩兒女痛楚 戀慕丈夫、並受丈夫的「管轄」 建立整個父權體系。 男人也受到懲罰,
需要勞動才能從地裡得吃的。 更多除草的工作 這些勞動之後的獎勵? 死亡 回到大地當中。 連牙醫健保都沒有! 更糟的是,男權再得一分:
這些懲罰都是因為一個男人聽了老婆的話 這就是「氣管炎」的下場。 希臘神話裡,潘朵拉的故事,
也是這種重男輕女的思路 即便在她打開魔盒放出各種災厄之前, 宙斯創造她的本意就是為了懲罰
普羅米修斯偷盜火種給人類 另外還要再加上讓他永遠被一隻老鷹啄食肝臟 根據赫西俄德的《神譜》,她是
「送給(男)人類的禮物,令他們歡喜的罪惡。」 赫耳墨斯給了潘朵拉「謊言、綺語和狡詐」 也許還有最完美的口紅色… 在我們認定女人很狡詐、不能被信任之前, 記得這是赫耳墨斯──
一位男神,同時也是古代的仇女者 所賦予潘朵拉的個性 所以這是男人對於女人的負面看法 最後,宙斯將潘朵拉送給
普羅米修斯的弟弟厄庇墨透斯 雖然普羅米修斯早就告訴弟弟
不要接受任何宙斯的禮物,他還是收下了。 或許是因為宙斯很愛送襪子。 根據赫西俄德的《神譜》:
「在此之前地上的人,生活安樂,無憂無慮。 沒有引來死神的病痛。 但是女人打開了盒子(一說桶子),
給人類帶來了傷痛和罪惡。 盒子的硬殼裡只留下了一樣東西:希望。 唯有希望沒有被放出來,
被蓋子擋載了盒子裡。 然而各式各樣的災厄遍佈了大地。」 很可惜,這種男權社會秩序和輕視女性地位的概念, 源自女人不守「婦道」,
並不是聖經和希臘神話的專利。 在日本也有類似的神話故事,
只不過沒有邪惡古蛇或萬惡魔盒。 進入〈思緒泡泡〉 其中一種日本創世神話中 從尚未成形、狀似水母的初生大地開始 三位無形之神出現在高天原(天堂) 這三位神,由中天之神
天之御中主神所領導 在這之後有更多代的七位「天神」 最後,第一對夫妻(同時也是兄妹)
伊耶那岐及伊耶那美出現了 伊耶那岐及伊耶那美受天神的命令,
把漂浮於海上的大地固定下來 二神便站在「天浮橋」,
用「天之瓊矛」伸入海中攪拌。 矛尖滴下的水凝聚成島,
稱為「磤馭慮嶋」,第一塊陸地。 二神降臨島上後,立起天柱「國中之柱」 二神決定正式結為夫婦,
伊耶那岐問妹妹她的身體是如何形成的。 伊耶那美回答說她的雙腿之間有缺陷。
※亂倫警告※ 伊耶那岐說他的雙腿之間有多餘的,
或許他們應該交合互補。 他們發明了結婚儀式,繞行國中之柱一周 之後互相稱讚,然後交合。 一個小孩出生了,卻是個畸形兒:蛭子恵比壽 他的父母將恵比壽放進一艘小船遺棄在海中 二神認為第一個孩子是個畸形兒
是因為伊耶那美先開口說話 二神回到磤馭慮嶋的國中之柱
再次舉行儀式 這一次伊耶那岐先說話 不久之後,伊耶那美便生下許多的孩子、
海島、以及各種神靈和女神 謝謝〈思緒泡泡〉 這則神話建立了日本男權主義
和柔弱女性思想(大和撫子) 這則神話不只解釋了日本的男女不平等地位, 同時也解釋了日本慶祝初生之子時會將
泥塑的人像放進蘆薈船上飄走的傳統 通常傳統禮節和神話都會有關聯。 許多創世神話中,人類都是不老不死的,
直到某些事件或外人的破壞。 舉例來說:聖經裡的人類原本是不死的,
直到亞當和夏娃吃了智慧樹的果實。 是人為錯誤帶來了死亡與毀滅。 歹勢~ 這裡又可以見到一個共同主題。 聖經、日本、希臘的神話都將人類的
災厄、痛苦、疾病,歸咎於女人。 這是個對於兩性關係有很重大影響的負面觀念。 或許我們看到的是男人在一個
認為男人有權管理女人的系統下, 尋找這類的故事來支持這樣的作法。 畢竟,沒有理由把責任都推到女人身上, 男人也會犯錯啊! 之後我們會討論到法厄同,
以及他是如何幾乎燒毀了整個大地 謝謝收看,我們下次見。

34 thoughts to “Social Orders and Creation Stories: Crash Course World Mythology #5”

  1. The thing with Christianity though is that although the woman is supposed to submit to the man, the man is also supposed to serve the woman and better her life, leading to a good balance.

  2. It stinks there have to be so many warrant statements on active religions, and can't call out the myths as they are. Fast forward 3,000 years a new one will be formed and some current ones will take the shelf alongside the Greeks and Egyptians

  3. I would like to point out that in the Adam and Eve story, there evil serpent Satan was left out. Eve was naive and didn't know not to listen to the serpent and Adam was absent and therefore unable to help his naive wife to make the right choice.

  4. Come on, it's not that "women are evil", it's simply an analogy about the power women have over men.
    Yes, their society was mainly male dominant, but these myths say way more about women having power over men, which they should be aware of, than male superiority (Aside from the japanese one, I guess).
    Let's not cast misogyni into everything we see from outdated times, specialy because it was supposed to be just the mythology. As if anyone needs a lesson in feminism in the middle of a "history class".

  5. These people just can't help themselves. They're so thoroughly SOAKED in Feminism and Social Justice they can't not mention it. There are hours upon hours of analysis that can be made about this topic…this video is 10 minutes long, and he's COMPELLED to levy a feminist critique. Because nothing is more important than pointing out Sexism and Racism. NOTHING. Here's a thought…I know it's HERESY, but maybe…just maybe…Sexism and Racism aren't worth pointing out at every single opportunity. Maybe there's more to this stuff than Racism and Sexism.

  6. Important side note: They didn't eat from a Tree of Knowledge. It was the Tree of "Knowledge of Good and Evil"

  7. The biblical account didn't blame Eve, it blamed Adam for obeying eve over god. Eve was deceived by the serpent and was (almost) innocent in the account but Adam purposely went against gods command. The patriarchy stuff always bugs me because it's more of a biological consequence than a scheme by men to oppress women or something. The dominant alpha types rise to the top of hierarchy's and males with testosterone and more dominant personality traits are more often the ones leading. Back in early human history before modern technology, woman had to care for the household and kids, they had no option to work (for the most part) but men were providers, fought wars and hunted and protected civilization. Everything was a struggle and men and women worked together to survive the best they could and certain social orders came out of that, some of which were unfair to women and some unfair to men.

  8. And this is why Africa is superior. May I remind you that Osiris dies like 5 minutes into the story! Isis rules. Girl power. End of story.

  9. blah. I was enjoying this series until you started giving overly generalised lectures about gender inequality – most of which is just assertion without evidence. Myth is not the only reason for gender inequality. Nor is it fair to suggest that the creators of these myths had the intention of ensuring gender inequality in the future. There are other interpretations as to why women would be (in the minds of our archaic ancestors) subservient to men other than the reasons you are giving.

  10. … I'm not hating on the video I really do quite like these a lot, and this guy does a great job… But I am not sure how I feel about him putting the creation story of my religion into a video titled "creation myths" I would really appreciate if they just stuck to creation myths of ancient cultures that don't have religions that still believe in them today.

  11. Until 7:19 I felt weird and cringey for me to watch with all those misogynist gods,
    but at 7:46 I had gotten used to the stories and deduced where this story is going and was like "this is where the women tells, 'Please fix my plumbing' " and she approximately said the same thing 🤣😂

  12. You should have brought up the part when said a man will leave his mother. If they were created by God Neither had a mother and or would have known what a mother was right?

  13. I came here for the myths, not ideology. Shame. Looking at history through an ideological lenses is dangerous. Worse is sharing that under the guise of fact. Atheistic arrogance is not a moral virtue.

  14. I am sure that the reason women are subjugated, stoned to death, granted less rights etc. in Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Afghanistan is because they are Christian nations. lolololol You conveniently left Islam out of this …..

  15. Well in hebrew we use the ha suffix to differ between the genders.
    woman isha is ish (man) + ha, ha means god in hebrew. the story tells that she got the extra ha because women are creators and therefore are closer to god.

  16. … Can't help but hear "Inducing a deep sleep and taking a rib" as an allegory to "Tranquilizing and taking a DNA sample". "Ribs" could have been the simplified expression to describe chromosome to the ancient people who haven't even established the concept of biology yet, and could have been alluding to X chromosome being taken from the first male and duplicated into XX pair to produce a female specimen. Hmm… fascinating. >):^]

  17. Also, I'd say that the social order of women being "subservient" to men is only confusing or amoral to people who don't open their eyes to the obvious. In both hunter gatherer and agrarian societies, men were typically in charge of war. They died on the battlefield while women took care of the children and the home. As Judge Holden once said, "War is god." I personally hate war, but it has always and probably always will be the primary motor of human civilization… ehem… Ragnarok, anyone? … so, it is only reasonable that a species whose only real god is war should place men in charge of the family unit. That is, until they are mowed down in machine gun fire. Then mom's in charge. So, in my opinion, if the West wants true gender equality, eliminate war. Until Aries is slain gender equality will always exist. That, or we can feed both genders equally into the jaws of war. But that sounds shitty. okay peace out, sorry for long opinion drop, I'm just caffeinated up

  18. My only issue with this video- which is awesomely informative, as is every Crash Course episode (great job guys!)- is that it blatantly judges the mythologies through one very contemporary interpretation of morality. In essence, it is doing the same thing it rags on these myths for: applying a system of morality to all of culture, everyone's culture. This is cool if you're a gender studies student, because gender studies isn't scientific… at all. But if you're making a kind of anthropological case study, like most of these great little vids are, it's just tacky and puritanical. That's the funny thing about "contemporary" gender equality: it's an imposing of one culture's morality on all the world and all of history… it's so puritanical it goes further than Christian puritanism by imposing one system of morality not only on current societies but all of history, too. And, it's just distracting having little gnomish and pleasantly genderless Mike R continuously apologizing for the myths. Like, we can judge these myths on our own bud, you don't need to cowtow to the gender studies folks every five seconds. In other episodes Crash Course is really good about being open to interpretation, but this is just cringe worthy here.

  19. Also, in Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, G-d is one, but expresses Himself in different ways. Note that this is perception-based and not reality based, like the Christian Trinity. The initial split in perception is between the Male and Female perceptions, and we call him a He, as right now the Masculine perception is dominant, later both perceptions will be co-equal in the eyes of people.

  20. Honestly, and I swear I'm not being biased, most people misunderstand the bible, it shouldn't be taken as light as fables. These are historic records.

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