Legacies of Social Change: 100 Years of Professional Social Work in the United States

Legacies of Social Change: 100 Years of Professional Social Work in the United States



the following program is a collaboration between the Council on Social Work education and the National Association of Social Workers financial support was provided by the Brown foundation of Houston Texas from the dawn of civilization the plight of the core the plight of the needy has haunted every culture in every generation ancient civilizations ordained charity through religious texts and civil authorities but far too often the quality of care varied and indifference reigned under the English Poor Laws of the 17th century towns levied taxes to help the needy but the same laws penalized those deemed too lazy to work by the 19th century waves of poor immigrants flooded American cities like New York and Chicago as the rich got richer the poor suffered violence often erupted volunteer workers were overwhelmed and underprepared it was time for a change [Applause] it was the last quarter of the 19th century millions of immigrants flooded into American cities looking for work and a better life but most found only misery and despair one person concerned about the human suffering was Jane Addams the daughter of a wealthy Quaker family in Illinois her parents had taught her to be useful in society but her opportunities seemed limited Janie Addams is growing up in a society that has fairly prescribed notions of what women should do particularly educated women she doesn't want to become a sort of stereotypical woman and she talked about trying to bridge the gap between the social classes to personal example as her friends were settling into motherhood or careers Adams set off to tour Europe moved by what she saw in London she wrote home the most interesting thing that we have done in London was a visit to the Toynbee Hall in the East End it is a community of university men who lived there have their recreation clubs and society all among the poor people yet in the same style they would live in their own circle it was so free from professional doing good so unaffectedly sincere and so productive of good results that it seems perfectly ideal returning home adams thought that she could find a house in the middle of the Chicago slums where a young college-educated women like herself could adapt the Toynbee Hall idea the idea was not that the trouble was the person the idea was the trouble was the environment society the economic conditions and what they hope to do is by actually taking up residence next to the poor they could become exponents of the social gospel that in some way or another they could uplift the lives of the poor or the have-nots through example the neighborhood that Jane Addams selected was full of dilapidated houses of garbage strewn mud streets of no heating in the winter and no air in the summer and mother and father and Ted kids living in one room and in the middle of this slum set this lovely old brick house with community contributions and some of her own money Adams and her friend Ellen star moved into Hull House but their neighbors were not quite sure of what to make of them they couldn't imagine why these women wanted to live there and so they were very wary of these two women that Jane Addams and Ellen gates star set out to be useful in any way that they could and be neighborly they begin by talking to the women and the children and the first program within a week was a kindergarten because it became quite clear that the women needed help with daycare and that was the Icebreaker very soon there was a club of of Italian boys and a club of German boys and there was German night where Jane Addams and Ellen star try to give the immigrants a sense that Hull House in America respected their culture and their heritage as their neighbors flocked to Hull House Adams had to attract young women and men to become residents and help run the programs residents did not come easily to the settlement as you can well imagine the well educated young women Chicago's were not unwilling to come and volunteer their time during the day but living all the time in the slum was a different matter and so it took some time for Jane Addams to build the resident stock there this synergistic group of people working together and they're bright and they're young and they're brash and they're they're hopeful about the future at Hull House Adams and her colleagues offered classes in sewing art English and citizenship there were playgrounds and adult education courses so it was an effort to make a bridge between the classes and to bring opportunity to everyone Adams and her young reformers at Hull House established new ways to serve the community and to address the ills of society leaving a legacy for generations [Applause] the working port of Baltimore was a stark contrast to the genteel comforts of Jane Addams as childhood near its waterfront an orphan named Mary Richmond grew up in one of its working-class neighborhoods near Richmond early life was both sad and interesting her mother died when she was four after tuberculosis and she was taken to live with her grandmother in a kind of a ramshackle boardinghouse on the wrong side of town far from gloomy and depressing life at the boardinghouse illuminated Richmond's world her grandmother read the political news and the economic news and she would raise this stuff at the dinner table social issues of the time were hotly debated and fought and Richmond got to put her two cents worth them you know and it was a respected two cents worth so early on she was really trained to think critically and analytically she graduated from high school at 16 but with College out of the question factory work was her only option can you imagine this brilliant brilliant girl who loved to write love to read loved her books loved loved life school wanted to be a teacher but couldn't because she didn't have any political connections going to work in a factory Richmond managed to find office work but cruel working and living conditions ruined her health eventually with the help of friends she found a job at the Baltimore charity organization Society the idea behind the charity organization societies was trying to coordinate a variety of private relief activities that had been going on in urban America so initially she spent 28 years old and what she's noticing is that there doesn't seem to be any system or any rhythm to their work she says if they get a good solution they just blunder into it there has to be a better way and remember the charity organization society is part of the idea of scientific charity so let's apply scientific principles let's gather data its form hypotheses let's see what works this was the beginning of professional casework Richmond had found her calling so she wrote a paper that she presented at the National Conference of charity and correction talking about the need for a training school and by 1898 we have the first summer school first training at the New York school at Columbia University here was Richmond with no college degree teaching presenting papers around the country and gathering data on the causes behind society's ills her work led to an appointment at the prestigious Russell Sage Foundation in New York where she completed her influential book social diagnosis social diagnosis was an important text book it had forms that could be used to try to assess the circumstances that people were living in that needed aid and assistance this is the beginning really of what I would call scientific social casework and that's what's so important about the legacy of the charity organization Society and Mary Richmond in my mind a major contribution Mary Richmond made to social work was to explain very carefully that you have to have an understanding of the individual circumstances of people you have to do good because that's the basis on which social reform rests she saw social work as an integrated process of casework and social reform a seamless garment America's bustling industrial cities drew not only European immigrants but African Americans fleeing the poverty of the rural South unlike their white counterparts black workers had to contend with segregation when the migration north began African Americans who already in the north some of them social workers were concerned about helping African Americans fit into society instead of helping society accommodate other people while the settlement house movement did acknowledge the existence of an African American population the settlement movement focused on immigrants the African American community was virtually invisible when they were visible they were relegated to at least secondary status african-americans needed social services but few blacks could get the necessary professional training we're talking about formal education for the most part Social Work education was was largely white and upper middle class or upper class individuals African American Social Work and Social Welfare developed parallel to what was going on in the majority culture african-american students were trained to work in african-american settlement houses and that was accepted as a as the normal practice into this segregated world was born edward franklin fraser a brilliant student from a black baltimore family of doctors and teachers as a young man he chafed at america's ideas of racial superiority and he determined to fight them he Franklin Fraser came with a perspective that said manhood and and citizenship meant that I will not abide by the rules of segregation graduating with honors from Howard University and armed with a master's in sociology from Clark University in Massachusetts Frazier accepted a research fellowship in 1921 from the New York school of social work to study rural cooperatives in Denmark it was small-scale socialism and possibly useful to rural blacks in the south the conditions that people lived under were awful and it wasn't simply because of segregation but it was also because of such dire poverty many were sharecroppers on the land depended upon wealthier farmers to provide for family needs and so forth for blacks in the twenties the American South was the place to flee a place of rising Klan membership lynchings and grinding black poverty but it beckoned Fraser he accepted a professorship at the Atlanta School of Social Work where blacks could get formal training within a year he became its director he had this idealistic belief that there was a readiness for change that Social Work had kind of planted inside of him that this was possible so let me go and practice and make this possible he wanted the School of Social Work in Atlanta to be a beacon and a model that people could be proud of he did well in terms of promoting the school getting it up and running dr. Frazier accomplished so much in the short time he lived because he worked day and night and he didn't have time to just socialize and I think maybe sometimes he he resented it because he suddenly spoke about it quite often that the fact that people would not working hard traveling across the south to recruit students and encourage support for the school Fraser refused to accept segregation he would go to meetings and refused to stay and say to people I told you I will not sit in a segregated meeting with you and he would walk out well in that time that was like the worst thing for somebody to do the entire history of the Negro in the United States has been created a Negro of feeling a racial inferiority segregation was established was stigmatized in Negro as unfit for human association morally degenerate and intellectually incapable of being educated criticized for being too militant he was forced to resign from the school he had nurtured eventually he moved to Washington DC where he taught sociology and helped to found a school of social work at Howard University over the years a cadre of able black social workers were professionally trained at Atlanta and Howard these schools stand today as a fitting legacy to the man and the profession he fostered what's up of the railroad I've made it run I made a race against time what type of a railroad how it's done brother can you spare a dime as the Great Depression gripped the nation the fledgling profession of Social Work faced its greatest challenge I don't know what would have happened if we hadn't elected Roosevelt president because he inspired us again with the feeling that somebody was doing something about it and he overcame this business that the government should not intervene the government should intervene it was a respondents responsibility that people should not die of hunger President Franklin Roosevelt promised Americans a new deal and for the first time brought in professionally educated social workers to fulfill the promise three stood out Frances Perkins Secretary of Labor Jane Hoey director of the Federal Bureau of public assistance and Harry Hopkins the son of an Iowa harness maker Hopkins majored in political science at Grinnell College Grinnell College was one of the middle western bastions of the social gospel movement which believed that persons had a religious obligation to help their fellow man Harry went to New York when he got there he took up the Grinnell calling to become a social worker to do something for the good of others and he found urban poverty of scale and of an impenetrable quality that he had not been accustomed to and in the Middle West and it made him I think serious and his thinking about the challenges of his profession and the kind of dedication that was required in order to succeed in it Hopkins spent 20 years in New York inning recognition is an innovative social worker during the time that the profession was developing seeking leadership for New York's daring work relief project governor Roosevelt had tapped Hopkins establishing a lifelong relationship persons who observed the scene however in 1933 saw in Hopkins those qualities which were going to distinguish him later on this nation is asking for action and action now as director of the new independent Federal Emergency Relief Administration the fer a Hopkins went right to work President Roosevelt has given me the job of administering the five hundred million dollars appropriated by Congress under the Emergency Relief Act of 1933 to help care for the 18 million persons whom the depression has plunged from self support the public dependency on Capitol Hill critics attacked Hopkins relief program calling it a quick fix and a poor investment in the long run Hopkins responded people don't eat in the long run senator they eat every day first couple of weeks he was there he he stayed with me in a little apartment that I had and we had a lot of fun together and he made this remark that I quoted to you that I've never forgotten Bob I'm gonna do exactly as I please and I probably won't last more than six months I think that Roosevelt saw Hopkins energy imagination his willingness to take risks his willingness to stand up to powerful politicians on the question of a work program is against Direct Relief it is my conviction and one of the strongest convictions I hold that the federal government should never return to a Direct Relief Program we should reach a concept in America where the able-bodied unemployed are entitled to a job as a matter of right the Works Progress Administration was launched late in 1935 as the key agency in the federal work program to employ able people from ready pros by 1935 Hopkins was overseeing the largest federally funded work program the nation had ever known Hopkins insisted on doing all he could for the little guy who was out of work in fact he made it a point to say you're jumping all over me because I have spent all this money on relief if I deserve any criticism words to this effect it is that I didn't do enough when I had the chance this social security measure gives at least some protection to 30 millions of our citizens who will reap direct benefits through unemployment compensation through old-age pensions and through increased services for the protection of children and the prevention of ill health with the help of Harry Hopkins and labor secretary Frances Perkins President Roosevelt put the Social Security Act of 1935 into effect New Deal economist Wilbur Cohen remembers in my opinion the Social Security Act whatever its limitations are was the most important long range change in social policy in the United States of that period but to run these programs men and women trained in Social Work and committed to social justice had to be accepted in Washington it was a battle to get the notion accepted the trained people who'd been selected for this particular work were the best people to work in public welfare to work with poor folks the person who saw the need to bring professionals into the system was Jane Hoey director of the federal bureau of public assistance under the new Social Security Administration Jane Howe II worked with Harry Hopkins in New York in the American Red Cross she was a trained social worker she is a rather unsung heroine I think of social work we very often don't think of the context we don't go back to what public welfare meant in the early 30s there was no federal help at that point for poor women and their kids so you have to picture one woman with three staff people in an office in Washington who has to create the whole public assistance system from scratch she insisted that her agency be staffed by experienced social workers who could effectively administer the federal grants for state aid to the agent to the blind and to dependent children and you know this had been really a state level and a county level operation this was a big area for patronage for governors and other officials who would hire you know you know legislators wives or whatever to accomplish her goals she could twist some powerful arms she was sitting in a governor's office talking with him about so they really needed to do for public welfare in his state and he calls Washington and talks to somebody in Social Security office and says I have this red-haired devil sitting in my office and she's telling me what I have to do I don't have to do what she says do I and the answer came back oh yeah you better you better think about that Hoey's fiery personality had put her in direct conflict with many powerful figures but with her strong convictions and spirit she endowed the Federal Bureau of public assistance with the highest standards of professional service in Francis Perkins early years American workers men women and children sweated 70 hours a week under unclean unsafe unsanitary conditions the men working in the the steel mills there before the blazing hot blast furnaces an 11 hour day it is just incredible and often this would be a seven-day week and the unions didn't love anything if you live with factories women were basically locked in from 7:00 in the morning till 8:00 o'clock at night women and children they couldn't go to the toilet when they needed to you saw with with women who sewed that they may lose a finger if you were sick you were probably fired because there were people who had a baby and would be at work a day later you know I mean that's what she did if you wanted to eat one of those who had seen these horrors was former Hull House social worker Frances Perkins as the New York State industrial commissioner under governor Roosevelt Perkins had witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in New York City she determined that such a tragedy would never occur again when Roosevelt moved to the White House he appointed Perkins to be his Secretary of Labor the first woman cabinet member in American history I imagine this was not an easy appointment for Roosevelt to make and one of the problems I guess that Perkins faced as she was not on or coming out of organized labor and she was a woman there's a famous picture of Roosevelt signing the Social Security Act and there are a whole lot of men behind and there's one woman with a round hat looking very serious and is the only woman in the picture everyone seemed uneasy with the Perkins appointment even Perkins herself who was apprehensive and on guard at the first official cabinet meeting some of her colleagues seemed unsure that she could speak all men and women in the United States who oversee labor take its proper place in American life we'll earnestly hope and desire that this may be an effective conference to settle all of the difficulties between these two great branches on a practical and permanent basis it was very exciting time his time of crisis we had a president we forgot tried to make changes we were going to be part of planning the changes but a government with a soul would be expensive and fundamental changes would be difficult to sell to Congress Perkins pushed for laws against child labor and for fair labor practices reasonable hours and safe working conditions but struggling industries depended upon cheap labor senator John McClellan made the southern argument what profit is the labor of the south if he gained the enactment of a wage and hour law forty cents per hour and forty hours per week if he then lose the opportunity to work perkins presented her arguments over the public airwaves saying that the prosperity of everyone in the country depends upon the ability of the common man to support himself after a contentious floor fight the Fair Labor Standards Act was passed in nineteen thirty eight Americans got the 40-hour work week the minimum wage safe factory conditions and laws to protect children from industrial exploitation with social work colleagues Harry Hopkins and Jane Hoey Frances Perkins had moved the profession to center stage and the federal government accepted its responsibility for the nation's social welfare a commitment that was to last for nearly 50 years in every corner of the battered world men rejoiced cheered the end of World War two the war was over and American soldiers and sailors couldn't get home soon enough there were families waiting and the greatest military machine in history melted as we laid aside our arms but the human devastation of war haunted returning World War 2 veterans it were buddies and they came back with limbs missing blinded serious wounds paraplegics quadriplegic and there's a sense of guilt too about being back I mean I lost a lot of friends and I was a lucky one before the war del Anderson had worked with youth in a Cleveland settlement house but the war set him on a new course I felt that I had a responsibility to these buddies of mine who had come out of the war wounded disabled and felt that you had to be part of that program to help them rehabilitate be restored and use the remaining capacities they had to live its useful life and full of life as they could Anderson was drawn to the Veterans Administration where a grateful nation provided services to those who had served and where he felt a personal bond here is a person who's lost a leg austin tyrone he's blind and this is a very traumatic communicating experience so he came with a psychological overlay on a physical handicap trying to understand the links between mind and body developed during the 1920s as social workers and psychiatrists were seeing the individual as a product of his environment after the Second World War this awareness was paying off but he tried to unravel both physical and psychological impact on the individuals and then bring them together in a positive futuristic forward-looking goal for that veteran you are wounded you are disabled but there's a lot of you left the mind is clear our upper arms are working there's a lot you can do with what you've got left in the way of the physical body the first training responsibilities of the veterans administration is to restore the employability of service disabled veterans and as you worked and sort of prove this to the veteran some of the psychological problems whatever they would be called today seemed to disappear anderson recalls a particularly challenging situation there was a binded veteran who had been to the program returned home to his family and the word came back to the senator that he was not adjusting this family tried to attend to his every need and sort of make up for his loss which is exactly the opposite kind of an approach they should be using so i spent several interviews with them talking this out and how the program was designed to help your son become independent i kept working with the family and so he went into business and lived a fairly decent life and so it's kind of exciting to see veterans move from almost total disability to being kind of independent by helping vets get their lives back VA social workers like Dale Anderson were becoming linchpins in the rehabilitation process there were a lot of concerns about the community services that World War two veterans needed after they were in the hospital so there was a lot of interest in having social workers look at community programs and look at ways to help the veterans make a smooth transition back into the community historically doctors had treated social workers as subordinates unwilling to make them an integral part of the team now that relationship was changing social views in the VA have a unique opportunity to be part of an interdisciplinary treatment plan they bring a systems perspective they bring an ability to facilitate discussion to the team the treatment team and make the patient and the patient's families seem more real so they're not just a body or a body part they're seen as a whole unique individual with lots of unique needs in addition to whatever their health care needs are as the 1950s ended the profession was growing in numbers in services it offers in respect it was accorded and in the professional status it enjoyed as for Dale Anderson he advanced to become the director of social work service for the VA Whitney Young was another World War two veteran drawn to social work young saw the tragedy of returning black vets held back not because of injuries but because of race he had grown up on the grounds of a boarding school in Shelby County Kentucky the Lincoln Institute was a segregated vocational school his father a teacher and chief administrator at the school fought for a better education for his students and for his children Whitney Young grew up in a very middle-class background were education and opportunity were promoted when World War two came young joined the army as a noncommissioned officer in Europe he faced the challenge of having to mediate between his men and all-black unit and their white officers make sure your thumb is alongside your hand because out here they may misconstrue it then cut the hand sharp edge of the tire don't let it drop down like a dead faith while in the army he honed his negotiating skills Whitney Young never saw himself as someone who couldn't make things happen he could step into the circle of anyone and negotiate persuade influence because he understood the possibilities that this can happen Young's journey into Social Work had begun when he entered a master's program at the University of Minnesota after graduate school he got a job with the local Urban League the Urban League is of Social Work Agency primarily looking at housing employment access to opportunity and it started as a response to try to correct social conditions that people were experiencing as they were migrating north what he saw the need for was to find a way to move back the barriers of racism and the league's agenda would fit into that at age 29 he was named director of the league in Omaha Nebraska where he stepped up his campaign to expand black employment opportunities we were saying to employers look if you rule out a whole segment of the labor force on the basis of color you're missing great opportunity in America we were saying to our young people plan and prepare if you don't plan and prepare and there are opportunities you won't be able to move into them in 1954 Young was recruited to serve as dean at the school that he Franklin Frazier had led but in 1959 he received a call from the National Urban League a call he wanted and welcomed it was clear that Whitney was the heir apparent and he just had a natural understanding of human nature he also understood the need to bring blacks and whites together government together corporate America and labor together that we all had to be in this together and he did not allow this to become a problem of black folks but it was a problem of America I am Whitney Young executive director of the National Urban League the Urban League believes that every American should have an equal chance for good education a good job a decent house and a healthy life young spurred the league to become a part of the growing civil rights movement he also called upon white America to cast off its stereotypes and prejudices he tried to persuade America that let's try to define the best internal Sprint's that we had both in people and in the nation and how to bring those together and see what need to be done while Martin Luther King was a good and wonderful personal friend the best speech at the march on Washington given by Whitney Young the evils of the past and the guilt about it cannot be erased pow one day pilgrimage however magnificent an arc and this pilgrimage substitute for an obligation to tomorrow and so this March must go beyond this historic moment Young was able to get everyone's attention President Nixon pour the meeting together of his whole cabinet here Whitney Young speak to talk about government to all of its resources need to play a larger and more effective role to be able to better relate to many of the challenges problem I don't know that ever happened before or since when the young had that kind of influence at the height of his career his alma mater honored him classmate Dell Anderson remembers Whitney Ellen gave the main address he included the little story about how he almost didn't make it through the University of Minnesota Graduate School of Social Work because if some of the faculty members saw the alack communication skills and then he said last week in the Oval Office talking with President Johnson I had no problem with my communicative skills in March 1971 his busy schedule took him to Nigeria for a conference of the African American Institute Jesse Jackson was down there with him the former attorney general Ramsey Clark was there and his wife was also there a number of people without an international conference and in Whitney drowned he was out swimming one day with a was a bunch of people I know the Ramsey Clark happen to be there with him and so I was asked by the Urban League to go down to represent them together with one of the board members to the president sent his private plane to go penguin Young's body back and that was indeed if you Menace Lee said Whitney Young brought the humane values of Social Work into clear focus as the country struggled to achieve the goals of the civil rights movement let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans as the 1960s began the federal government stepped up its efforts to extend the promises of the New Deal I recommend it the new efforts and employment housing education recreation and community service President Kennedy's successor Lyndon Johnson declared a war on poverty this nation is mighty enough if society is healthy enough its people are strong enough to pursue our goals in the rest of the world while still building a Great Society here at home with the war on poverty the federal role in effecting social reform increased as never before the poor received the promise of Medicaid food stamps and subsidized housing and there were a number of programs that came about during 60s from Head Start and Job Corps and I always thought that these were programs that neighborhood and community people could access but the war on poverty falter an era of optimism died in the rice paddies of an obscure Southeast Asian country called Vietnam the nation's confidence in Washington's ability to solve social problems was shaken in the past eight years three million more people have been added to the welfare rolls we cannot simply ignore the failures of welfare or expect them to go away I therefore propose that we abolish the present welfare system we have Richard Milhous Nixon in the White House trying to put an anti welfare law [Applause] an ado moi began her career in New York's Lower East Side where poverty and poor health care were a way of life her colleague remembers the challenge three hundred thousand people in this neighborhood called the Lower East Side of Manhattan which is larger than a city of Richmond Virginia and for that community they were very few health services recognizing the need for local and affordable health care do moi began grassroots efforts to organize community health centers what we did was to form what we call the intergroup Health Committee and the majority of them were people who we're receiving supplemental assistance from welfare as they campaign for their neighborhood health centers do moi and her committee faced some old barriers and what was the resistance in the 60s physicians were very very resistant to patients having any say in the decisions that affected them the role of the social workers was to help the community people understand not just that they had the right now under the law to participate but these hospitals could not develop these neighborhood health centers without their participation if you are owned by the hospital they dictate to you what you do what you don't do whom can you see whom you don't see when the neighborhood owns the center they are the ones who set up the priorities as to which other programs are more important is it pediatrics or he said adult care or he said eight in her battle for community health care do moi was tenacious one of the problems is that everybody wants a quick face everybody believe that you have to have a program today and resolve it tomorrow and that's not going to happen that way it's going to take a long time their whole view of that the poor apathetic who don't care about their health and won't go for care was totally disabused when you saw the outcomes services were there and people came and we were there to organize a series of health initiatives and on my mentor an Adu moi organized the first federally funded neighborhood health center controlled by the community in the country at the close of the 20th century large federal initiatives had ended it was now up to social workers like Anna do WA to help local communities develop their own programs and services for over 100 years Americans have benefited from programs and services fought for by professional social workers I like it they have won many battles good job but the war is not over basically the one profession which was founded for the purpose of social change and justice was Social Work Jane Addams did not create a profession to provide band-aids she created a profession to help immigrants to help our people and to promote social change I think our welfare system has really failed the people that it was designed to serve I think that if we had used many of Richmond's ideas people have a welfare system that lifted people out of poverty because people could get what they needed to lift themselves out of poverty they could get the education that they needed they could get if they needed a lot of health care they could get the health care if they needed babysitting if they needed transportation they could get those things which would help them join the ranks of workers and work their way up the ladder and and be a part of the American dream as we've come into the new century I see a growing income gap which is deeply troubling and also the erosion of a safety net Social Security's in trouble it's difficult getting Social Security disability the availability of health insurance and the growing number of people who have no health insurance and for our elderly not to be able to afford prescription drugs in the very country that invented those drugs I think Barbara is the biggest challenges we're facing we have lots of people often in very low paying jobs jobs without health insurance jobs without other kinds of benefits without security I think the challenge now is for more social workers to get involved in chicken making suggestions and changing social policies to deal with the income disparities in the country this is the story of Social Work and the best social work I think is always terribly creative trying to seek out funding because there's no free lunch when it comes to the delivery of social services in this country you have to have resources to do it and you have to have skilled people power to in fact mount these programs it's conceivable in every walk of life from the cradle to the grave there the possibility of social worker can be involved in your life and oftentimes people associate the Social Work profession with those who are quote the have-nots but more and more people who already have are finding that they can utilize the services of social workers we have to work harder we have to be more convincing we have to empower and strengthen our people and we have to do it with more diligence [Applause] this program has been a collaboration between the Council on Social Work education and the National Association of Social Workers financial support was provided by the brown foundation of Houston Texas

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