Cern Hadron Collider - The birth of the World Wide Web and its connected the Collider

Cern Hadron Collider – The birth of the World Wide Web and its connected the Collider

it's been the case throughout the history of the internet we constantly been surprised when we look at the Internet and where it came from and where it's arrived today and where it's headed I think it's quite clear but the engineers didn't really realize just how much this was going to change thanks people thought we were crazy area internet thing is never gonna be as important as the telephone or the television in this series we'll journey through the past present and future of that revolution we call the Internet we'll go inside the hidden places practices and people who make it hum and ask why do we all love it so much this is the internet really right here we usually think of it as invisible of somewhere in the cloud but this is where the invisible becomes visible where the intangible becomes concrete I'm Derek Muller and I'm in an internet exchange point one of hundreds of places around the world where computers networks all linked up to form the global Internet what's happening in here is that countless routers and switches are receiving data from one network and they're passing it over to another network by a real physical cables so it's a network of networks all interconnected which is why we call it the Internet and here you can actually reach out and physically touch it everything we've ever recorded or for that matter ever written texted or tumblr passes through these global internet exchange points it is a cosmic journey the likes of which neither Newton Tesla nor Einstein could ever have fathomed all of it traveling at the speed of light I spend most of my working life here on the Internet now I know that may sound a little bit nerdy but I actually really enjoy it I create and host an online science Channel called veritasium meaning the element of truth it is my dream job because I'm passionate about science and now I can investigate topics I've always wondered about in that cool and bring my world of science to a massive international audience I capitalize on the reach of the web for example after uploading this video called the surprising application of the Magnus effect it has now been viewed by more than 50 million people from around the world not bad for a film about a fluid dynamical effect as a species we have an inbuilt need to connect with others to communicate and share our stories to create community in essence and the internet empowers us to do that in ways we never before imagined in 1969 the same year that a man stepped on the moon Leonard Kleinrock headed up a team of computer scientists later hailed as the fathers of the internet and it all started in a room like this one but the interesting thing is that even none of us had been born we'd still have an Internet today it was in the air it was going to happen the inspiration to create a brand new network came from a branch of the Defense Department called ARPA the Advanced Research Projects Agency well you know Abba was formed as a response to the 1957 Sputnik launch by the Russians the Soviets had caught us with our pants down we were behind in technology at the time computers were very large very expensive and separated by great distances so a single user wishing to use multiple programs would have to travel to different locations computers need to talk to each other and there was no way in which they were able to do so efficiently at the time here was the problem if you were trying to send files or messages over a network you'd have to put them in one at a time so each message had to wait it's turn and if one of the messages were really big it would take a long time to go through the solution Leonard Kleinrock and his fellow internet pioneers came up with still lies at the heart of the Internet today it's called packet switching in which all the messages are cut up into pieces of the same size called packets then the packets can travel separately through the network making the best use of every available space so packets from small messages well they can squeeze into the gaps between packets from large messages avoiding the long wait and once those packets have reached their destination they can be reassembled into their original messages to do all that chopping and reassembling a special device we connect computers to the network this is the very first piece of Internet equipment ever this is where the internet began it's the interface message processor it's made out of a military hardened machine for the Department of Defense inside you notice it is so ugly it's beautiful it's my friend has unique odor and it's really old equipment but this is where the entire internet began right here the year is 1969 Richard Nixon is inaugurated as our 37th president and more than a million people gathered at Woodstock to celebrate sex drugs and rock and roll and on October 29th Cline rocks team at UCLA logged into a computer at the Stanford Research Institute now to make sure this worked but this was the first time these two host computers were going to talk to each other to let somebody log in remotely we had a telephone connection just to be sure now to login you have to type L Oh G so charlie types TL and he says to build you get the L bill sets got the L do you get the Oh got the O type the G crash the system went down the first message ever on the internet was low as in lo and behold Samuel Morse had a good master time a telegraph network he said what hath God wrought he prepared a message he had the press in the media there Alexander Graham Bell Telephone come here Watson I need you Neil Armstrong giant leap for mankind but it turns out that the message we sent was about as short as prophetic as powerful as he can imagine him low by accident our vision in those early days was machine to machine or person to machine but I missed totally was that this was not about computers talking to each other it was about people communicating with each other by the end of 1969 there were just a few computers connected to the ARPANET but the network grew steadily during the 1970s but as they multiplied it became more difficult for them to integrate into a worldwide system and the desire for access to each other's data was enormous back in the 1970s there was no single global Internet as we know it today instead there were lots of different networks like the government's big ARPANET and satellite networks and little community operations but they all had their own different format and they connected to each other in different ways so in short if you weren't already on a network there was no way to get to it it was like the biblical Tower of Babel we needed a common language a standard set of protocols that would allow all these networks to talk to the internet got the common language it needed thanks to two pioneering scientists and this nondescript delivery van Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn worked for years to solve the problem of connectivity Bob showed up in my office at Stanford in 73 and says we have a problem actually what do you mean we he says well I'm trying to get these notes in reconnect and I don't know how we should do that Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn outfitted this vehicle with high-end computer hardware and radio transmission gear and then they drove it through the streets of the Bay Area on November 22nd 1977 the team at this console was able to transmit a message to Los Angeles 400 miles to the south but they used three networks to do it the two men developed a way for all the computer networks to communicate it's been described as the handshake that introduces computers to each other they also came up with a new word for what they were doing Bob Kahn and I wrote this first paper describing a protocol for packet network inter communication and so internetworking was the term that was used but it was so clumsy Bob Kahn called the project internetting and eventually we started to refer to the object that we were building as the internet computers were still large roughly the size of industrial refrigeration units the only people who could afford them were large corporations universities and the military but as they were manufactured to be smaller and smaller personal computers began to take off and so did the internet for the user at home probably 1981 PC and tried to get hooked up to a modem and it was really complicated really difficult but there still was something magical about the idea that I was you know sitting at a computer connecting at people and ideas all over the world the standard speed of connection was 56 kilobits per second so uploading a video or even a photo took a ridiculously long time people were complaining it was too slow and we're gonna fix that with the cable modem Jim Phillips was an executive at Motorola in the mid 1990s when they developed a way to speed things up now we looked at all these cable companies and they had this way of communicating via hybrid fiber coaxial data V wire what that gave us was really high speed data which we hadn't experienced before and the best part no more phone lines suddenly you could download audio you could download video even once you were connected you could also join discussion groups and send email one dial-up service rose to the top AOL America online it took millions of Americans online for the first time the mission of the Ale in the early days was to create a service that was easy to use useful fun and affordable but the broader mission and sort of the real mandate that was driving us we really believe the internet could be as important in people's lives as the telephone or the television but even provide more value to attract new customers AOL used a brilliant marketing strategy the new is here remember those CDs AOL just gave them away so people could load up the software and connect to the network millions signed up at one point in the 1990s half of all the CDs produced on earth were from AOL and users discovered new ways to find each other for us the community was everything is how do we create a whole suite of tools so started with email it also was message boards and forums things like that we also thought the real-time communication is important so initially we launched people connection sort of chat rooms and we created instant messaging AOL provided a gathering place for groups of people with shared interests they could see all the traffic of so many communities coming on lines where there was a village with women or blackberry Creek with young children or NAT noir the african-american community LGBT community we put it out aisa called the two-thirds rule more than two-thirds of their traffic was people just talking to each other in their platforms in a chatroom message board etc I used to even joked I'm kind of like not just the CEO of the company I'm kind of the mayor of the community we asked a question in 2004 a lot of experts what is the most surprising thing about the growth of the internet and they said the spread of the web itself was what stunned them just that so many people had so much to say and of course there's a lot of cat videos in that and a lot of cat pictures there's also sort of profound sharing my shirt matches the boxes behind me I'm gonna change wonder if we can take it down a button No one of the most famous to upload his life is John Green John's best-selling novel The Fault in Our Stars became a hit movie but millions feel like they know him personally because for years he's run a YouTube channel including this one which is enormous ly popular with his brother Hank from January 1st to December 31st 2007 John Green and his brother Hank ran a video blog project they called Brotherhood 2.0 every day for the entire year the brothers sent each other videos don't you know the whole moves are ready gone and reserved a copy at Amazon how many more books could you sell I got to hang out with John and we reached out to Hank [Laughter] cool okay so tell me how you decided to put your first video on YouTube so late in 2006 my brother and I were talking on AOL Instant Messenger and we were talking about how we never saw each other and we never talked on the phone we only communicated textually and we got this idea over instant messenger to stop communicating textually and only to communicate via videos that we made back and forth to each other every day that was early that was early days did you realize what you were doing at that point no what was your expectation for the project I remember when Hank uploaded the first video and a couple days later we had 450 viewers I remember thinking where did these 450 people come from it just felt huge to me it was astonishing that you could reach people so directly off-topic but at the State Fair turkey legs are just so delicious I wonder if Velociraptor legs are good morning Hank it's Tuesday today's video is like nothing you ever bought at IKEA it comes to you and only two parts for the green brothers daily vlogs began to gather a massive audience and theirs was one of the first big channels on YouTube leading the way to the birth of a YouTube nation I love you I mean watch my channel the brothers also set off a relay race of memorable virtual moments yes we double rainbow hi guys um so the first video ball once the term social media was created just do this there was clarity that we were living in a world where the internet was of the people by the people this is your time this is my time the year was 2014 Ebola was in the news daily and nearly three billion people were now on the Internet at that time the ALS ice bucket challenge was traveling the web at warp speed the online campaign went a little something like this I am accepting ALS icebucketchallenge either you or someone you knew poured a cold bucket of water over your head you then made a donation to the ALS organization and also nominated someone else to them for a bucket of water over their head ice bucket shot I accept the challenge challenge except the viral campaign was an effort to eradicate Lou Gehrig's disease it also may have underscored the look at me and narcissistic culture that had begun to emerge online more than 2 million people posted videos of themselves accepting the challenge the ice bucket challenge raised more than a hundred and fifteen million dollars in just six weeks it was and still is the apex of using social media for a cause every month almost two billion people log on to Facebook its founder Mark Zuckerberg grew impatient with the creation of an official Harvard webpage while he was a student and so he and his friends decided to take matters into their own hands Zeca Berg launched Facemash for Harvard students only and from there it spread to other colleges and then on February 4th 2004 the site the Facebook was launched nationally just four years later the company was valued at nearly 4 billion dollars it's already hard to remember life before it when we actually smiled at someone when we liked something and tagging was just a kids game the online platform shifted our communication from emailing to broadcasting the content of our lives and even if it went away tomorrow it has forever changed the way we communicate Facebook continued to experiment with the ways users could webcast so when Facebook live appeared it enabled users to go live with whatever they were doing from wherever they were doing it with the push of a button and through it we've had front-row seats to everything okay from the viral sensation of Chewbacca mom to the other extreme the live cast of the Minnesota shooting he have you told him get his ID sir his driver's license oh my god please don't tell me he's dead please don't tell me my boyfriend just went like that where Dimond Reynolds broadcasts the aftermath of the shooting of her partner he was just getting his license straight registration set the Internet via Facebook Twitter Pinterest and so many more sites has become our go-to for just about everything breaking news social movements there's a growing body of scientific evidence that now suggests that we are living our lives inside of a digital simulation a massive computer program the size of the universe that began running long long ago sometime in our ancient past creating the virtual reality we see is our everyday world right now well the implications of such a discovery they're huge they're vast they're deep and they tear right into the core of our most intimate beliefs about everything from healing and disease to war and peace life death religion God angels ETS aliens UFOs the cosmos and even beyond now I know that the possibility itself may sound like something from a science fiction movie and I know that because it did to me as well that is until I began to consider the new evidence and that's what this series is all about and this program we'll explore the discoveries where they lead what they mean in their lives what they're telling us today so let's begin at the beginning with what scientists are now calling the forbidden question is it possible that each moment of every day of our lives is actually happening inside of a simulated reality that looks and feels totally real to us first I'd like to be absolutely clear about precisely what assimilation is what I'm talking about when I refer to assimilation a simulation is an experience that allows us to immerse ourselves in an unfamiliar environment first and second it allows us to master the parameters of that environment in a relatively safe way while minimizing the risk of injury to ourselves or to one another so the idea of a digital environment is certainly nothing new for us today we already use simulated environments in a number of places for example what you're seeing on your screen right now is a musical awards show was actually hosted in Orlando Florida and the woman that you're seeing standing on the Left is the host is the emcee of the program and she's presenting an award to two musicians who could not be present at the actual ceremony because of schedules they are performing in London England now the audience didn't know that so you're seeing a holographic projection a virtual reality of those two performers as if they are live on stage with the emcee and as you see on your screen it's very difficult to tell that they are not actually there the audience didn't know that these people were not really there and it was from this digital reality that the two were able to interact the performers and the emcee so that they could receive their award without leaving their home in England then the audience had the opportunity to see the whole thing so this is an example of how we are using digital environments already simulations in the entertainment world and there's another example that was even more recent and this was at the 2014 Billboard Music Awards this one however was very controversial because it was a video of Michael Jackson performing a song that had never been released the problem was Michael Jackson died in 2009 and the simulation that you're going to see is so real that people in the audience some of them were actually offended at the reality of having a deceased man perform in front of them on the screen and the point of me sharing this with you is the audience could not tell that this was a digital reality it looked so real so here it is you can check it out for yourself [Applause] so what Jesus seen is a beautiful example of how far this digital technology and the ability to create simulations have come in a very short period of time we've only had computers for about 60 to 70 years the people in the audience could not tell that that was not the real Michael Jackson he interacted with the other dancers he interacted with the audience and he looked very real to us so the point here is that we're already using these simulations in a number of ways in our everyday world around us the new theories that we're talking about are asking the question are we living within one of those simulations now there are different kinds of simulations and I've shared a couple of examples of of how they can be used in entertainment many of us are familiar with the divisors the helmets that we can use for a personal simulation a personal virtual reality and in this case we place the visor over our head we have the experience personally but the people around us are not having the same experience so as you can see on the screen there's an example of one man on the right-hand side of the screen he's having his personal reality but if we're looking at him on the outside we can't see what he's seeing on the left-hand side you can see what it is that he's actually seeing and interacting with so this is a kind of a personal virtual reality but we also use personal realities and simulations collectively we use them in places like planetariums and SeaWorld where we want to portray an environment maybe an ancient environment of dinosaurs or an underwater environment something that we will never experience personally in our everyday lives so we also use simulations very commonly to train for complex tasks sometimes dangerous tasks landing on the moon for example or on Mars emergency response scenarios and and first responder and wartime scenarios we often use simulations so that we can train in a relatively safe environment so that we are prepared when we need to find ourselves in those dangerous environments airline cockpit simulators what you're seeing on your screen right now the last thing you want is for your pilot to be landing his plane of Boeing 747 in a high crosswind on a rainy stormy day the very first time when you're in the plane you'd like to know that he's had this experience and that he is trained to do so in the past so this is the value of simulations as they are used today so with this in mind I want to go back to the original question that I asked only a few moments ago are we in one of those simulations right now in a massive simulation the size of a universe and if we were let me ask you this would you know it would you know the difference between what is called a base reality or a fundamental reality and assimilated or a digital reality is everything that we're seeing happening in our everyday lives a part of this this simulation well the idea itself is actually a new language for something that we have heard about and been conditioned to think about for a very very long time to illustrate this what I'd like to do is share with you the characteristics of a simulation as we know it today and then let's go into one of our most ancient and cherished spiritual traditions into the mystical texts of our past and let's see what they are describing and how that description parallels with the simulation that we're seeing today I think you're going to find this really interesting the characteristics of a simulated world a simulation has a place where it begins a definite beginning and it has a place where it ends and what happens in between that beginning in that ending is based on a mathematic algorithm a rhythm of cycles in patterns that repeat again and again again on different scales in a simulation there are rules that govern the simulation and the idea is that as the people in the simulation become more familiar with the environment as they learn those rules life gets better they improve with practice in a simulation users have access to another reality that is not within the simulation in the simulation the users always have access to an external reality that they can tap into for guidance if they get into trouble or if they need clarification they always have the ability to communicate beyond the simulation itself that's going to be really important in just a few minutes and in a simulation as I've just mentioned the user cannot tell the simulation from the real world all right so these are the characteristics of a modern simulation as we know it today as we use them today typically now with this in mind let's go back and look at what our most ancient in cherished spiritual traditions from a number of different religions tell us about the world that we live in they tell us almost universally that our world has a beginning and there are different ideas about what that beginning is but there is a clear beginning in every religious tradition and that our world will have an end that it does not continue forever that is almost a universal truth throughout the religions and that the events that are unfolding between that beginning and that in are based on natural rhythms and cycles our most cherished spiritual traditions tell us that every life has a beginning and every life must have an end they are not perpetual they tell us that there are rules to living in this world and that our lives will get better as we learn those rules now there are different interpretations of those rules in different traditions some of them are as common as the Golden Rule do unto others as you have them do unto you some of them are reflected in the 10 commandments that tell us about how to conduct our lives and then other other spiritual traditions in the shamanic traditions and then the Egyptian mystical traditions they all give us insights into how we live our lives in this world and here's the key every ancient spiritual tradition tells us that beyond the world of our everyday senses that we have direct access to a guidance and a wisdom that is not part of this world we have access to an external reality or an external guide so when we make these comparisons except for the language you can see the similarities is it possible that thousands of years ago our ancestors were trying to inform us in a language of their time something that they understood that we are only beginning to awaken to the possibility of happening in our lives that we are actually in an artificial world a temporary world that has a beginning and an end that we're learning something here and that we have access to an external guidance when we need that access we can't tell the real from the illusion and as a matter of fact the Sanskrit word Maya the word itself Maya actually means illusion this is a fundamental concept in the Hindu tradition and what I love about the Hindu tradition is that they tell us that it is under the illusion under Maya's influence that the soul identifies with the body to the point where we cannot tell ourselves as separate from the illusion of this physical world under Maya's influence we get lost in the body's expressions of ego and fear sex race the color of our skin our belief systems under the illusion of Maya and where this gets really really interesting is in those same traditions the idea of enlightenment means to escape the Maya to escape the illusion so if you watch the movie the matrix in 19 99 blockbuster hit the matrix as we escape the illusion of Amaya this would be the equivalent of taking the red pill so of awakening to a greater reality that exists beyond the senses of our everyday lives our everyday world Christian traditions tell us something very very similar they tell us almost universally this world is temporary that it is an illusion not to get stuck here that we're here only briefly and that we are preparing they actually say we're preparing ourselves to live in another world and Christian traditions it's called heaven or hell we can place whatever meaning we choose to place on that but the idea is that where we end up going depends on how well we learn the rules and the principles of this world that we're living in now this parallels the ideas of a simulation almost to the T so as we learn to embrace things like compassion forgiveness the honoring of life things like that that prepares us to live successfully in whatever world whatever environment it is that we're moving to beyond this world so we could go on in other traditions and maybe you've done this in your own life you can see the parallels the key here is then both the Hindu and the Christian traditions we have access to this wisdom that is beyond our immediate environment and external wisdom and I find this fascinating because when I look into the artwork for example of some of our most ancient traditions and I asked myself how would they have portrayed this idea visually you know 2000 2500 years ago and knowing what we now know about the possibility of us living in a simulation when we look at the artwork and we see we see the profits from this world climbing a ladder into the clouds in the heavens to communicate with something beyond this world we have to ask is this what they're telling us is this what they are portraying so when we see the artwork that was left to us by our ancestors 2000 2500 years ago within the context of what we now know about simulations we have to ask is this what they were portraying is this what they were trying to tell us where they depicting in their artwork this relationship between us in this world and the ability to transcend this world to access a wisdom an external source of wisdom in another world when we see them climbing the ladders into the heavens for example how else would they have portrayed something like that so these were all things to consider when we're talking about this relationship between an ancient description of us living in a temporary illusionary world and what the best science of the modern world is now telling us about simulations in the way they work there's a school of thought in some scientific circles that consciousness itself is in constant dialogue with itself that that consciousness is constantly communicating with itself that we are constantly communicating with ourselves through the things that we create through our art through our music through our movies through the books that we write and I personally believe that there's a lot of truth to this line of thinking I believe that when we create individually we are responding to an impulse that a collective impulse that comes to us from our collective consciousness and if this is the case it suggests that we are constantly informing ourselves of a reality that we know on some level is true and we are informing ourselves so that we can engage with that reality on a conscious level let me just give you an example maybe you're a Star Trek fan I'm a huge Star Trek fan and in Star Trek The Next Generation the 13th episode of the seventh season there is an amazing segment that is titled homeward and it is a very very powerful story that I believe illustrates how powerful this idea of a simulation really is now if your Star Trek fan you may know that aboard the Starship Enterprise there's a special room that is called a holodeck and in the holodeck it is possible to recreate a simulation on the ship of an environment that the crew may find themselves and when they beam down to another world so that they can master the parameters should prepare themselves for that environment that concept is going to be very important for this particular episode in this episode the Starship Enterprise has gone to another star system and they found an earth-like planet with humans living on this planet however the humans chose a non technological path of progress they didn't become a high tech society they became a very simple agricultural society live close to the earth they raised their family they grow their food and they don't have disease they live to be healthy old ages and it's a very beautiful lifestyle but this is Star Trek so there has to be a catch and the catch is that the solar system is about to be destroyed the Sun is going to go supernova it's going to explode and this planet will be destroyed and all the lives will be lost the crew of the enterprise find themselves in this in this very awkward position because their job is to observe and not to interfere with any form of life they find on the one hand on the other hand these are humans on this planet and they don't want to see them all die so they find a very interesting and innovative solution what they do is this when the people on the planet go to sleep at night they are beamed in their sleep aboard the starship into a recreation of their world in the holodeck of the starship a simulation on the starship that they cannot tell from the real world that they're living in and the idea is that once they're all there safely that the crew will take this this population to another planet that looks just like their own beam them back down and they'll never know what happened so they've met all the criteria of the starship mission they have saved the life yet they have not interfered in the process well this wouldn't be a Star Trek if something didn't go wrong and what goes wrong in this particular episode is that the power system on the enterprise breaks down and the simulation begins to break down that the people were living in and they see their virtual world begin to dissolve and the rest of the episode is a very heartfelt episode of humans communicating with humans honestly about what their intent was and where they come from and and why they've done what they've done the point of me sharing this story is that the people on the surface of that planet when they found themselves in the holodeck they could not tell the difference between that holodeck and the world that they are living in and the question is is this our story are we already there is consciousness informing us reminding us of the truth of our existence through our artistic creations that we are living in this simulation and if it is what is it saying to us what are we asking ourselves to remember if consciousness is informing itself through the art maybe the theme of the art is reminding us of the deepest truths of our existence look at the films that are so popular right now things like the matrix that just mentioned or avatar both of these hugely popular films they touch something so deep within the individuals something that so many people said was so familiar to them some people actually cried when they were watching these films because it touched an element of truth within them in both of these films there are artificial environments simulations where humans are projected into lifelike bodies just like we have right now so that they can interact in these environments the question is are there if you were living in a simulated environment would you even know it and how would you know it can you tell a simulation from a base environment I'm going to show you a couple of images on your screen now I'm going to ask you if you can tell the difference between these and an artificial environment what you're looking at now is a mountain range covered with snow how real does this look to you is this an artist's rendition is the digital reality I'm going to tell you right now this is a simulated image it is a virtual image the same with this another mountain range it's doing exactly the same thing looks real it looks like a photograph you cannot tell it from a photograph this is a digital reality look how real this looks look at the vegetation look at the sky look at the texture of the rocks if you didn't know that this was a digital reality you would not be able to tell this from the real thing this is the African savanna is what you're seeing on your screen right now okay look at the trees look at the leaves on the trees we cannot tell these images from the real thing to us these look real and that's the point where we're going with this scientists now are beginning to take the possibility of us living in a simulation very seriously so seriously in fact that they're designing entire scientific projects to determine whether or not this is in fact the case John Dee Barrow is an Oxford University physicist he's also a 2006 templeton Award laureate and I want you to listen to what he said in a quote for a paper that he was writing what he said is this he said that has long been recognized that technological civilizations only a little more advanced than ours will have the capacity to simulate universes in which self conscious entities can emerge and communicate with one another okay look at what John Borelli said he what he's saying is technological civilizations will have this capability and the reason this is important to us is because the best science of the modern world is now changing the way we have been taught to think about ourselves now our relationship to the earth when I was in school back in the 1950s 60s and 70s I was taught that civilization is linear that civilization began about 5,000 maybe 5,500 years ago during the time of ancient Sumeria it began relatively primitive and that civilization accelerated in a linear fashion from the less developed to the more complex so that we are the pinnacle of sophistication we are the highest form of technological advancement that has ever graced the face of the earth this is what you and I have been taught on the one hand now on the other hand there's a growing body of peer-reviewed scientific evidence that's telling us this is not the case the evidence no longer supports that story and when I say peer-reviewed I want to be very clear what I mean by this because I'm going to reference peer-reviewed work through the rest of this series a peer-reviewed paper is a paper that has been written by a single scientist or maybe a group of scientists and after it is written before it is published it is circulated among peers hence the term peer-reviewed other scientists who have the opportunity to look at the paper look at the research try to find errors try to find where the evidence breaks down or where it is actually supported with current research this is a process that can take months it can take years sometimes it'll take six to eight years for a paper to go through a peer-review process before it is finally accepted and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal such as nature for example nature is a very prestigious a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the contemporary world today and it is available for the layperson catch up on all of the new science so the point of me making that description is that peer-reviewed science is now telling us that what we have thought of our civilization and of our history in the past is no longer supported by the evidence now we know that civilization is not linear we did not begin in a single primitive state and develop in a straight line in a linear fashion to the point we are today rather civilization is cyclic and the evidence is very clear that the civilization as we know it has occurred within cycles that averaged about 5000 years apiece this is reflected in the traditions that we see in the Mesoamerican calendars for example the ancient Maya had very very clear mathematical representations of these 5000 year cycles how they begin how they end what they mean to us today as have other civilizations so the reason I'm sharing this with you is that the idea that we are the first technological civilization advanced technological civilization is no longer supported by the evidence I described some of these civilizations in the first season of missing links if you'd like to go back and take a look at some of those in more detail but what John Barrow is saying is it's long been recognized that technological civilizations only a little more advanced than ours will have this tremendous computing capacity so when we now look back into our past we have to ask the question is it possible is it possible that there have been highly advanced technological civilizations in the past that followed a path similar to ours and perhaps even advanced beyond where we are today is it possible that it happened here on earth is it possible that it's happened in other places and the reason this is such a powerful question is because as I mentioned earlier when we look at the simulations that we saw the beginning this episode and how real they are and how difficult it is to tell the simulation from the real world when you saw Michael Jackson if you did not know that he had already died in 2009 if you were in that audience and you were seeing that and prior to that time he'd been on the deserted remote desert island somewhere and never got the message that Michael Jackson had passed how would you have known that that was a digital representation probably wouldn't have so the question that the scientists now are asking as we embrace the deep truth of cyclic civilization and cyclic civilizations that go back 15 20 thousand years or more before the present is it possible that those civilizations developed in ways that we simply have not recognized in the current world that we're only now beginning to entertain the possibility of recognizing this is one of those places where the evidence is emerging but there is a reluctance and I have to be very honest and say there's actually a resistance in some places to sharing the new discovers there's a resistance in mainstream classrooms in mainstream textbooks to talk about cyclic civilization going back fifteen thousand years before present we're certainly not seeing in the documentaries and and the the television specials with rare exceptions that's why it's important for me to share this information and talk to you about it here I am a scientist I'm a degree geologist and I think science is good science serves us but science is designed to be constantly updated is new information emerges science is not static and this is what's happened in many respects science has been hijacked by other interest by corporations by politics by religion so the science that we've asked to serve us can only serve us if we keep it honest and what the science is honestly saying to us is that the world of the past is very very different from what we've been led to believe there have been advanced technological civilizations we knew they have electricity we've seen the Buried cables we've seen the pipes underground we've seen the civilizations with hot and cold running water stained-glass windows high art advanced mathematics knowledge of star systems that we only had in the 20th century and we're looking at civilizations over ten thousand years old that had this knowledge so I'm saying all of this now to come back to the question is it possible that an advanced civilization may be ours has developed simulated realities a long time ago for reasons that we'll explore in this series and if so is it possible that we are living inside of those realities you or a funny moment to break up another wise horrible day these statistics show us in real time the sheer enormity of web activity at any moment in the day it is now true that every second 6,000 tweets are tweeted and 41,000 status updates are posted to Facebook and Google processes 100 billion searches a month I think it's fact I don't think it's I don't put a judgment on it I think we're heading towards a world where everything is being imaged I have to teach my four-year-old kids now that if they do something and it's viewed on Facebook it's there forever so ultimately it's gonna change Society audience participation made the Internet enormous ly powerful but its reach accelerated with the juggernaut of online gaming it's nearly a 100 billion dollar worldwide industry four out of five households in the United States have gaming consoles translating into a hundred and fifty-five million Americans playing games regularly alright game on game on veritasium am I saying that right veritasium for some it is a full-time job they play online and others pay to watch I went one-on-one with game streamer Josh Peters who goes by Koopa Troopa 787 oh I hate that he's definitely out of my league tell me about the journey from you know doing gaming for fun to doing gaming for a living after a week of doing it without even trying to monetize or make money from it within a week of starting I was making more money than I was at my full-time job for the first time in my life I felt like I could actually do something that I really enjoyed but make a living out of it and I know sometimes I take that for granted it's a very very big question but I mean do you feel like the Internet has made a life possible for you that there was otherwise impossible or what are your thoughts on it I have had up to fifty seven thousand people at once watching me play a phone game and there's no I mean that's an entire stadiums worth of people watching me play a game on my tablet from my home office you know that's that's not possible without without the internet and he has no idea where most of these people are watching him from or who they are the audience lurks in the shadows his fan base is completely anonymous capitalizing on the invisibility of anonymity apps like whisper and secret and Yik yak began to saturate the marketplace UK was created by college friends Tyler droll and Brooks Buffington they wanted to create a more democratic social media network where users didn't need a large number of followers to have a virtual voice so they allowed people to post comments completely anonymously Yuk Yuk's 1.8 million faceless users share thousands of yaks per day it started out innocently enough with postings like chat up to the girl and the red sweater on the library steps looking real good i hate when my phone says searching but when it does i hold it to my heart and whisper me to phone me too good morning Savannah well the smartphone app Yik yak only launched last December but how quickly it took off yak yak targets college students but the younger crowd is using it too and it can also be dangerous it's called Yip yak but the tide quickly changed to cringe-worthy and of course horribly offensive messages or yaks as they are known female students at the University of Mary Washington were threatened verbally with rape and other kinds of abuse crime alert out of Fredericksburg where police say a man has been arrested for the murder of his college roommate one of them was actually murdered her friends and family say it was partly due to the tension that began on the app in Falls Church the funeral for grace man is being held there were incidents at dozens of colleges and universities ukx founders say that they have made changes to address the complaints they received like adding filters to flag offensive language they have also built geo fences around roughly 85 percent of the nation's high schools and middle schools total anonymity gives you freedom perhaps to speak or to explore different thoughts ideas you know possibilities that might be out of the bounds of perhaps your normal social media or your physical setting or whatever but how do you balance the need for anonymity in very real situation is the political dissident the abuse spouse etc versus the growing trend of just in tolerant speech online as social media connects more people than ever before its success depends on companies policing their sites so that racists criminals and bullies do not make their presence known the really like mean-spirited things that people say is just mind-boggling mind-boggling content moderators like Alex from Patrol the cyber frontier their full-time job is to remove offensive material from social networking sites for content moderators like Alex it's a grim work day and the burnout rate is high you say something offensive to someone online you can't see their physical reaction in their face you can't see how hurt they feel so there's no human aspect to it and you feel like you can kind of just there's no consequences for your actions it desensitizes us when we go online we're not looking at each other and empathy is born in the gaze and the eye contact in the face sherry Turkle has spent the last 30 years studying the psychology of people's relationships with technology there's been a 40 percent up among young people on college students in the capacity for empathy in the last 20 years with most of the change taking place in the past 10 content moderation requires a human touch no amount of programming or algorithms can do this work especially when it comes to imagery a lot of the images that come through are sexually explicit sometimes sexually violent or very gruesome the constant stream of troubling words and pictures takes a toll on average moderators last somewhere between three and six months before quitting some have even reportedly developed post-traumatic stress disorder you leave work at the end of the day feeling a little down a little depressed you know kind of lose your faith in humanity a little bit my mantra for moderators is moderate and moderation if you're doing it all day every day whether it's images or content or videos or anything else you'll feel like the whole your whole world is negativity this business is often kept in the shadows intentionally the large companies who hire content moderators don't advertise that reportedly half of their workforce is doing this type of work they don't want the public to know that there's actually a huge need to police their sites most people don't know that there's this whole other side to the Internet where there are people working really hard to prevent you from seeing some of the more negative things that get posted online which a lot of I don't think will ever get rid of kind of the dark corners of the Internet where the seedy people go to do what they'll always do I think it's inevitable and it's just part of human nature and it's going to be a part of the internet as long as the internet is around some governments have also taken action to gain control of the web thank China for example they've built what's known as the Great Firewall it's a sophisticated system of filters that blocks out anything the Chinese government deems undesirable so if you're in China and you search for persecution you'll get a blank screen that says page not available you get the same kind of results if you search for Tibetan independence or democracy movements you know websites like the New York Times Time magazine YouTube Facebook Twitter and most of Google are also blocked there's no denying that someone's always watching you they also are implementing highly controversial surveillance which they call the golden shield project using speech and face recognition closed-circuit television and other internet surveillance technologies the Chinese government hopes to create a gigantic online database of each and every one of its citizens and several years ago China insisted that Yahoo turnover account information that ended up helping the government track and imprison journalists two of which were then sentenced 10 years in prison the incident attracted so much attention the Congress held a hearing where an outraged congressman told Yahoo executives while technologically and financially you are giants morally you are pygmies yahoo has since apologized for the incident censorship has gone global France and Germany have laws banning Nazi propaganda and in Australia there have been a series of proposed laws to block pirated materials and protect children now those are worthy goals but it does make you wonder where this might lead increasingly what we see is that different forces political and economic are making the Internet less free than we had hoped the United States government and other governments are going to platforms like Twitter and Facebook and asking them what are you gonna do about this she had a speech what are you going to do to limit it and are you going to help us get rid of it and for people who are connecting are you going to help us find out who's interested in this ideology breaking news this evening breaking news the whistleblower revealed the 29 year-old who leaked those top-secret details of the government's sweeping surveillance program is now come forward my name is Ed Snowden Edward Snowden's infamous revelations set off a ripple effect that is still traveling throughout the digital world leaked documents suggested the NSA was tapping directly into the service of firms like Google Facebook and Apple by all appearances it's a top secret program that's been going on for years the public needs to decide whether these programs and policies are right or wrong Snowden worked for the National Security Agency and leaked thousands of classified documents that revealed the government was collecting the communication records of perfectly average folks people like you and me they were in essence spying on millions of Americans we caught up with him in Russia where he is in exile he says that we should consider how far the government will go with that information one of the common questions that people have when they think about the surveillance problem when they think about all of the data that's being collected by corporations and government is why do people get so angry when spies are doing it when the government is doing it when they say they're trying to do it to do to save lives the answer as far as we can tell today is that the participation with these private companies is largely voluntary you're opting in to use Facebook you're signing up for a Google account you're agreeing to the Terms of Service on Twitter and there's also a difference in the level of power that these different sets of actors can bring to bear Google can spy your email and serve you ads that they think are relevant to your interest the government can put you in jail or drop a bomb on you the revelations sparked by Edward Snowden and continuing through the last you know several years frankly I think have reshaped the conversation in this country certainly and really around the world we know that the internet and much of the digital world was an American invention once it went global that meant to the rest of the world that the United States was holding the keys to cyberspace but once the Snowden incident happened things began to change non Americans began not to trust us they were concerned that Big Brother or rather Uncle Sam was watching Americans also did not want to accept that their technological life had to come at the price of possible surveillance as a result internet sovereignty is inching forward where we may become a world where the web literally splinters along geographic boundaries also known as the splinter net one of the probably most compelling threats to a truly global internet right now are the calls for data localization and and in-country servers and the application of one country's laws over another right now we enjoy an internet that is a global network of people and institutions that we have come to rely on it open flexible and efficient but if the Internet becomes the splinter net it would become a rigid system with impenetrable borders and critics argue it would also lead to a system even more vulnerable to government abuse another online threat goes beyond invading your virtual space to actually invading your personal space it's called it is an internet Frank where someone finds out your home address and calls 911 to report a fake emergency and just a few years ago one went down in a suburb of Atlanta it began with this 911 I was at work and I received a phone call from one of our caregivers and she said something strange is going on there's been some sort of 9-1-1 call an emergency and there's all of these police officers here at the house it was early january 2014 it was about 4:20 something in the afternoon my lieutenant came down the hallway and stuck his head in my door and he goes hey did you just hear that call and he said yeah we got a person shot at least two shot and a hostage situation I mean I really felt like now this can't really be happening but what I could not reach anyone to get that reassurance that's what it really just you know your head starts thinking crazy things and you know what if there is some crazy person in my house the end of my street had been barricaded and there were helicopters everywhere and neighbors lined across me it's like something from a movie I couldn't even believe what I was driving up to I literally just stopped my car and all the street and ran to a police officer that was standing there blocking the street I was like this is my house and my children were there and I need to get Mary mmediately she is this absolutely beside herself terrorized thinking someone has been to her homeland basically wiped out her entire family we ended up you know stopping her before she ran it to the house I remember feeling like I just want my kids you know what my kids in my hands right now after about a half-hour so some things just weren't adding up by this time the media already picked it up and then all of a sudden my nanny comes out and she's got two basically naked children soaking wet because they were taking a bath at the time I'm patrol guys going and they clear the whole house and come back out and it's like hey man nothing's going on in here this is this is a hoax their main goal is to trying to elicit a large law enforcement response because even after it's done they can come back and say to the person hey I reached out and got you today I'll do it again to you tomorrow don't mess with me traditionally the online world from the very beginning and the world of games was a boys club and I think that combination of locker room anything goes boys club mores in the online world combined with there's nobody knows your name you can be anonymous in a certain sense you're not anonymous but you are to characterizes cyber bullying it's just a sick game it's a kind of a retaliatory action I'm not sure exactly what causes it to reach to a level of where you get swatted but that was my understanding it angers you to know that somebody did this as a joke and that there's somewhere they're laughing about that and they thought that that was funny there's no accountability it's like a wild wild west on the internet and every now and then a marshal will ride through town and bring some law and order but then he leaves and everything goes right back to the same way it was it can seem chaotic and lawless but we can't really blame the internet for the malicious behavior of its users that's the thing we brought with us all of our social values onto the internet it's not that the internet changed our social values it it reflects them the global Internet is so infinitely accessible bad actors can show up anywhere as for the technology itself it's always been content neutral the network never knew anything about what was being carried sort of like cars going down the road you don't know what's inside all you know is there's a road in the car and somebody driving check out this new app it's called invisible girlfriend and it allows you to build your ideal partner virtually as the site says it offers social proof you know like if you're not in a relationship but you want people to think you are now don't get the wrong idea I am very happy with my actual real-life girlfriend but I thought I should investigate this to see what the future may hold so first you set up your own profile and then you get to pick her traits her name let's go with Katie now what is she like personality traits how about lovingly nerdy and what sort of stuff is she into ooh chess no on second thought no let's not do chess how about fashion yeah ooh cooking in sports where do we meet hmm camping no at the theater you just finish it up here and that's it I now have an invisible girlfriend look who it is my new invisible girlfriend Katie why would someone need a fake girlfriend people aren't getting their emotional needs met online they can find experiences elsewhere but you may not get emotional support there's there's this real lack of empathy in the world meet the inventors of invisible girlfriend this all started out as a crazy idea at a hackathon it was a throwaway idea he thought it was stupid we formed a team thought it would be fun to work on what we wanted to do is just see if can we build something in a weekend how soon could we get that working uh always that question the challenge was how do we actually create a fake girlfriend or boyfriend starting out with a chatbot and then ended up going to real humans because chatbots just don't work so we built a very very simple service that simple service took off okay ready let's do it refreshing hundreds of thousands of people have signed up oh you're too sweet to me what are you planning on buying me wait face of course I will I want to go out I miss you so much meet an invisible girlfriend she's a text writer for hire and she does her best to make a virtual romance feel real actually several at once I'm usually jumping between a few conversations have you seen those videos of those parents that put toothpaste in Oreos and give them to their kids this user says where do you want to go to dinner tonight and he says when are we getting married in a lot of ways for the user it is a real relationship but some of them don't realize that they're talking to more than one person it's true the next text I get from Katie could actually be written by a completely different person I like being the boyfriend because like I know what women want because I'm a woman so like I know what a woman wants to hear but I'm not necessarily sure that they'd be happy to know that I was a girl sometimes these quote unquote relationships become a little complicated sometimes the users will try to take it to a sexting level and you really have to deter them but that doesn't have him very often I think they just want someone to be kind to them the user said what I bought as a surprise but I'll give it to you tonight when I pick you up for dinner I love you baby and I said I can't wait I love you too darling you're too good to me how do I deserve you the creators of invisible girlfriend never expected it would become so meaningful to both parties we've been really intrigued by how you can have a deep connection with just messaging alone in the future I think it's gonna become normal to engage with characters that may not exist the web connecting more people than ever before shouldn't we be able to have real human connections but I guess that's the irony of the Internet the more connected we become technologically the more isolated a lot of us seem to feel in our actual day-to-day lives and that's that's kind of sad I hope that in the future we can still maintain those real person-to-person connections and we don't have to rely on computers to be our partners technology mirrors and magnifies the good bad and ugly of everyday life for me technology changes communication of course what is it for the worse I'm not convinced at all it's just different and people learn how to move across these environments and I'm confident that they'll figure it out I think we have to start thinking about what technology we're going to build next the Internet is changing in all kinds of ways there's still a long runway for the Internet and the Internet community and civil society to realize the potential of the Internet as the greatest kind of microphone for the individual ever created I see virtual reality becoming a real thing fully immersive virtual environments haptic you know feedback like you're there like you're in Tokyo I'm in Miami we meet in a virtual space that is like the matrix I can touch you I can hang out with you we can adjust the lighting of the sky we can cue the music to play I mean literally rendered dreamscapes inception like dream worlds that we can inhabit lucidly and navigate around it I mean literally we all gonna move into a cosmos of the imagination that type of immersion is going to change things so fast and it's here the goggles are here the band was here the resolutions here let's just do a high five Microsoft is developing a system that would make online interaction a lot more personal we call this technology Hall Apple tation with holo portation people will transmit live Holograms of themselves over the Internet the Internet has become the main way we interact with others real or imaginary virtual or robotic in the not-too-distant future it could also transform how we interact with the dead it's not hard to imagine that our loved ones who have passed on could be reconstructed by compiling their internet history all their online activity their email photos Facebook posts most people in the past lived and died with no record of their existence at all other than their birthday and their death date in the future we'll have a library of souls now think of what you can do if you have the connect home you would have a library of souls by which you could have a countenance tine a conversation with Winston Churchill of course these figures died in the past but in the future the Einsteins and the Winston Churchill's their basic personalities will be preserved and so you'll have a nice conversation with them the future will lead us even deeper into virtual intimacy capitalizing on giving the user access to all the senses and catapulting us beyond the simple transmission of words and sounds to the sensation of human touch there's already a virtual reality suit that can deliver a hug and taking things a step further researchers have reportedly proven that simple thoughts can be sent across the web one subject in India with a computer sensor attached to his scalp merely thought the words Ola and Chow 5,000 miles away in France another researcher also wired up received the brainwaves and found himself thinking the words Ola and Chow there will come a time when you don't actually have to tell anyone your feelings they will be able to pluck them right out of your head and on the horizon the very essence of connectivity the creation of a truly global village right now only 40% of the world's population even have access to the web a look at how many devices are actually connected to the Internet and you see how many of us are still in digital darkness the barriers to connecting all of us are enormous money language infrastructure but Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg just recently launched what may be our biggest hope into the horizon with the test flight of Aquila Aquila is a solar-powered drone and once she is launched she should be able to fly for up to months at a time blanketing the most remote parts of the world with Wi-Fi this is not the final frontier the mobile device you have will be supplanted by other things I'm certain the system will just be long all the time waiting for us to ask a question in order to ask for an action to be taken so the way to think about where the internet is going is not what's the future of the internet but what does the internet mutate into and what are all the reaction products that go spinning off in different directions and it's only just started you

One thought to “Cern Hadron Collider – The birth of the World Wide Web and its connected the Collider”

  1. I give you a thumbs down for the sheer amount of ads that you put on this fucking video! And then it's a complete fail because you could barely hear what the guy is saying. Maybe get a better mic or get closer to your freaking mic?


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