Basic Computer System Organization

Basic Computer System Organization


Hello and welcome! in this presentation I will show you a basic computer system organization. Every computer contains five essential elements or units: the Arithmetic Logic Unit (or ALU), the Memory Unit, the Control Unit, the Input Unit and the Output Unit. The ALU is the area of the computer in which arithmetic and logic operations are performed on data. The type of operation that is to be performed is determined by signals from the Control Unit. The data that are to be operated on by the ALU can come from either the Memory Unit or the Input Unit. Results of operations performed by the ALU can be transferred to either the Memory Unit for storage or the Output Unit. The Memory Unit stores groups of binary digits that represents instructions and data. The Memory also serves as storage for intermediate and final results of arithmetic operations. Operation of the memory is controlled by the Control Unit. Information can be written into the Memory from the ALU or the Input Unit. Information can be read from Memory into the ALU or into the Output Unit The Input Unit consists of all the devices used to take information and data that are external to the computer and put them into the ALU or the Memory Unit. The Control Unit determines where the input information is sent. The Output Unit consists of the devices used to transfer data and information from the computer to the outside world. The output devices can receive data from the memory or the ALU. The Control Unit directs the operation of all the other units by providing timing and control signals. In a sense, the control unit is like the conductor of an orchestra, who is responsible for keeping each of the orchestra members in proper synchronization. This unit contains logic and timing circuits that generate the proper signals to read and execute each instruction stored in Memory. All five units inside a Computer System work together in order to read a program and execute it, interacting with external world. The ALU and Control Unit combined are called the Central Processing Unit (or CPU). The CPU contains a set of registers that perform special functions and provides short-term storage of of data without needing to access the external memory. Thanks for watching!

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