2018 3MT Finals: Yusuf Yaras, Ph.D. Student, Electrical and Computer Engineering

2018 3MT Finals: Yusuf Yaras, Ph.D. Student, Electrical and Computer Engineering


– [Announcer] Next stop,
Yusuf Yaras speaking on acousto-optic sensor for
interventional MRI procedures. – [Yusuf] Heart defects
such as holes in the heart are the number one cause for infant deaths in the United States. 25% of the infants with heart defects do not even survive beyond the first year. Open heart surgery can be used
as a last resort on adults, but it’s not a viable option on infants. The alternative is
interventional procedures, where a tiny tube called catheter
is inserted into the vein and pushed all the way to
the heart to close the hole. X-ray has been used as a
primary imaging technique for the past century to
visualize the catheter and navigate through the veins. But there are major safety
concerns related to the x-ray. The first one is radiation exposure, which increases the
cancer risk tremendously. Normally, heart time rays
are invisible under x-ray. Practice use contra styles
which are still toxic because liver and kidney failures. So we need to use a
safer imaging technique. And magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a great candidate. It’s radiation-free and it
does not require contra styles. However, the traditional
catheters are invisible under MRI. Small antennas can be
used as location markers to make them visible, but the problem is, those antennas have metal cables, and metals get heated by the MRI. A solution is replacing
all the metal cables with optical fiber,
which is basically glass, so it does not get heated by the MRI. The antenna collects the local MRI signal and generates electrical signal, which contains the location information. But the optical fiber can
only transmit optical signals. So, we dual up an acouto-optic sensor to convert electrical
signal into optical signal. Appeals electrical transducer
takes electrical signal and generates acoustic waves, just like the loud speaker we have here. Then, a fiber optic sensor
takes this acoustic waves, like the microphone I’m using right now, and converts them into optical signal. We have demonstrated
visibility and functionality on animals with this with great results. We believe this technology will make interventional procedures
safer for everyone, but it will be an enabler for our babies. Thank you. (audience applause)

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